Landmine Monitor 2005

Landmine Casualties and Survivor Assistance

New Casualties in 2004-2005

The number of reported new landmine and UXO casualties dropped in 2004; however, the number of landmine survivors continues to grow as new casualties are reported in every region of the world.[1] In 2004 and through August 2005, Landmine Monitor finds that there were new landmine and UXO casualties reported in 58 countries, eight less than reported in Landmine Monitor Report 2004. Landmine Monitor also registered mine/UXO casualties in eight areas not internationally recognized as independent states that it monitors because of their mine-affected status, one more than in Landmine Monitor Report 2004.[2] In calendar year 2004, new landmine/UXO casualties were recorded in 56 countries and seven areas. In early 2005, mine/UXO casualties were also reported in El Salvador, Zimbabwe and Taiwan.

New Landmine Casualties January 2004-August 2005

Europe/Central Asia
Middle East/North Africa
Burma (Myanmar)
El Salvador
DR Congo
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Korea, RO
Sri Lanka
Serbia & Montenegro
Western Sahara

Bold: Non-States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty. Italics: Areas not internationally recognized as independent states

Compared to last year’s Landmine Monitor Report, there are four new countries with reported casualties from mine-related incidents—Belarus, Djibouti, El Salvador and Venezuela—as well as Taiwan. There are 12 countries that have reported landmine/UXO casualties previously, but not since the end of 2003: Bolivia, Chile, Indonesia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, FYR Macedonia, Malawi, Namibia, Niger, Perú and Ukraine.

In 2004-2005, Landmine Monitor has also identified another 13 countries with no new landmine casualties, but with casualties caused exclusively by unexploded ordnance from previous conflicts, including: Bangladesh, Chile, Estonia, Guatemala, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liberia, Namibia, Panama, Perú, Poland, Tanzania and Ukraine.

Scale of the Problem

Progress has been made since the Mine Ban Treaty entered into force. The number of reported new mine/UXO casualties has dropped significantly in some heavily affected countries. However, landmines continue to claim too many new casualties in too many countries. While acknowledging that it is not possible to know with absolute certainty, it is likely that there are between 15,000 and 20,000 new landmine/UXO casualties each year. Based on the information gathered for Landmine Monitor Report 2005, it is clear that:

  • Landmines continue to pose a significant, lasting and non-discriminatory threat;
  • Civilians account for the vast majority of new landmine casualties;
  • Not only mine-affected countries have a problem with landmines; nationals from 25 countries/areas (including five mine-free countries) were killed or injured by landmines while outside their own borders in 2004-2005.

In 2004-2005, mine/UXO casualties were still occurring in every region of the world: in 17 countries and one area in sub-Saharan Africa, in 14 countries and four areas in Europe and Central Asia, in 13 countries and one area in the Asia-Pacific region, in nine countries and two areas in the Middle East and North Africa, and in five countries in the Americas. Landmine Monitor found that 33 of the 58 countries and areas that suffered new mine casualties in 2004-2005 had not experienced any active armed conflict during the research period. In many cases, the conflict had ended a decade or more ago; for example, in Cambodia, Mozambique and Vietnam. For all of the countries added to the list in 2004-2005, the reason for inclusion was new casualties from previous conflicts, rather than the onset of a new conflict.

In 2004-2005, mine/UXO casualties also included nationals from 24 countries, plus Palestine, who were killed or injured while abroad engaged in military conflict, demining operations, peacekeeping, or other activities. The 24 countries were Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, France, Georgia, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Mauritania, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan and Zimbabwe.

In 2004 and through August 2005, mine accidents during clearance operations or in training exercises caused casualties among deminers and soldiers in 26 countries (Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chad, DR Congo, Croatia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Rwanda, Serbia and Montenegro, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Vietnam and Yemen) and four areas (Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, Somaliland and Taiwan).

Casualty Data Collection

Comprehensive data on landmine/UXO casualties continues to be difficult to obtain, particularly in countries experiencing ongoing conflict, or with minefields in remote areas, or with limited resources to monitor public health services. The sources used to identify new casualties include databases, government records, hospital records, media reports, surveys, assessments and interviews.

Landmine Monitor identified over 6,521 new landmine/UXO casualties in calendar year 2004, including at least 1,262 children (19 percent) and 239 women (four percent). [3] Twenty-five percent of the reported casualties were identified as military personnel. [4] A Survey Action Center analysis of Landmine Impact Surveys in 13 countries since 2000 indicates that 96 percent of all “recent” casualties were civilian, 24 percent were children under 15 years-of-age and 12 percent were female.[5]

It is important to remember, however, that the 6,521 figure represents only the reported casualties and does not take into account the many casualties that are believed to go unreported. In many countries, civilians are killed or injured in remote areas away from any form of assistance or means of communication, and in some countries, casualties are not reported for military or political reasons.

Governments are now placing greater emphasis on the importance of accurate and up-to-date data on mine casualties and mine survivors in order to better understand the needs of survivors and to ensure that limited resources are used most effectively where the needs are greatest. In an increasing but still limited number of mine-affected countries, mine incident and casualty data is collected and stored using the Information Management System for Mine Action or other comparable databases. Of the 58 countries and eight areas reporting new mine casualties in 2004-2005, 33 countries and six areas report using IMSMA, or other comparable databases to record casualty data. Of those, only 20 countries and three areas were able to provide Landmine Monitor with full year data or data collected in all mine-affected regions. Even in countries with a functioning data collection system, it is likely that not all mine casualties are reported. IMSMA has the capacity to record mine casualty data; however, a lack of human and financial resources reportedly sometimes prevents this system from being used effectively. The principal collectors of mine casualty data are mine action centers, the ICRC, national Red Crescent and Red Cross societies, UNICEF, and some NGOs. Landmine Impact Surveys are also a good source of information on “recent” casualties and survivors. However, the reality continues to be that in many mine-affected countries data collection is incomplete, and in some cases seriously lacking. In many countries, there is a strong likelihood of significant underreporting and also of inaccurate or duplicated data.

The number of reported new casualties declined in 2004 from 2003 in many mine-affected countries, in some cases significantly, such as in Angola, Lebanon and Sri Lanka. In some cases, significant decreases in reported new casualties would appear to be the result of a decrease in capacity to undertake comprehensive data collection, such as in Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Uganda. In other cases, conflicts, as in Burma, DR Congo and Iraq, and instability and insecurity, as in Sudan, impede data collection and information sharing.

Where an increase in casualties in 2004 was reported this appears to be largely the result of improved data collection, as in Armenia, Burundi, Chad, Guinea-Bissau and Jordan, as well as in Somaliland. In Colombia, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia and Turkey, improved data collection as well as increased tensions and expanded conflict appear to have contributed to significantly higher numbers of reported mine casualties in 2004. Others factors such as population movements, increased agricultural activities, and a growing trade in scrap metal have contributed to increases in reported casualties in countries such as Cambodia and Laos, as well as Nagorno-Karabakh.

Following are some of the findings for calendar year 2004 from countries and areas with mine casualty databases. They are listed in order from those with the most recorded casualties to the least, and indicate the change from 2003.

  • In Cambodia, 898 casualties recorded, up from 772 in 2003.
  • In Afghanistan, 878 casualties recorded by UNMACA, down from 1,018 in 2003. It is still, however, estimated that there are around 100 new casualties each month.
  • In Colombia, 863 casualties recorded, up from 724 in 2003.
  • In Burundi, 320 casualties recorded, up from 235 in 2003.
  • In Angola, 195 casualties recorded, down from 270 in 2003.
  • In Laos, 194 casualties recorded, up from 128 in 2003.
  • In Chechnya, 94 civilian casualties recorded by UNICEF, down from 209 in 2003.
  • In Somaliland, 63 casualties recorded, up from 50 in 2003.
  • In Sudan, 62 casualties recorded by NMAO, down from 127 in 2003.
  • In Sri Lanka, 56 casualties recorded, down from 99 casualties in 2003.
  • In Democratic Republic of the Congo, 50 casualties recorded, down from 233 in 2003.
  • In Bosnia and Herzegovina, 43 casualties recorded, down from 54 in 2003.
  • In Nagorno-Karabakh, 34 casualties recorded, up from 21 in 2003.
  • In Chad, 32 casualties recorded, up from 18 in 2003.
  • In Azerbaijan, 32 casualties recorded, up from 28 in 2003.
  • In Eritrea, 30 casualties recorded in the Temporary Security Zone, down from 62 in 2003.
  • In Guinea-Bissau, 30 casualties recorded, up from 12 in 2003.
  • In Mozambique, 30 casualties recorded, up from 14 in 2003.
  • In Ethiopia, 27 casualties recorded in Tigray and Afar only, down from 39 in 2003; the Landmine Impact Survey recorded 297 casualties in 2003.
  • In Albania, 25 casualties recorded, up from four in 2003; 20 casualties occurred in one incident during a training session.
  • In Thailand, 24 casualties recorded, down from 29 in 2003.
  • In Croatia, 20 casualties recorded, up from nine in 2003.
  • In Senegal, 17 casualties recorded, down from 19 in 2003.
  • In Yemen, 17 casualties recorded, down from 18 in 2003.
  • In Kosovo, 14 casualties recorded, down from 19 in 2003.
  • In Lebanon, 14 casualties recorded, down from 26 in 2003.
  • In Tajikistan, 14 casualties recorded, up from 12 in 2003.
  • In Rwanda, 12 casualties recorded, up from seven in 2003.
  • In Perú, five UXO but no mine casualties recorded, down from 21 in 2003.
  • In Zimbabwe, four UXO but no mine casualties recorded in 2004, down from 26 in 2003.

In other mine-affected countries, only limited data on landmine/UXO casualties is collected from government ministries and agencies, international agencies and NGOs, hospitals, media reports, surveys, and country campaigns of the ICBL. In some cases, available data is well below the estimates of the number of people killed or injured by landmines each year.

  • In India, 295 casualties reported, up from 270 in 2003.
  • In Iraq, 261 casualties reported, significantly less than 2,189 reported in 2003; however, due to the lack of a monitoring system and the security situation, the number of reported casualties is likely significantly understated. Many more casualties resulted from Improvised Explosive Devices, most of which appeared to be command-detonated.
  • In Vietnam, 238 casualties reported, up from 220 in 2003; the true figure is believed to be considerably higher.
  • In Pakistan, 195 casualties reported, up from 138 in 2003.
  • In Turkey, 184 casualties reported, significantly up from 67 in 2003.
  • In Nepal, 132 casualties were reported in the media in the first six months of 2004.
  • In Iran, 109 casualties reported, down from 135 in 2003; however, the Iranian Mine Action Center estimates that three people are killed or injured by landmines every two days.
  • In Somalia, 91 casualties reported, up from 75 casualties in 2003.
  • In Burma (Myanmar), 82 casualties were identified; however, the true figure is believed to be considerably higher.
  • In Georgia, 53 casualties reported, up from 50 in 2003.
  • In Philippines, 47 casualties reported, up from 21 in 2003.
  • In Uganda, 31 casualties reported, down from 64 in 2003.
  • In Jordan, 27 casualties reported, up from six in 2003.
  • In Palestine, 26 casualties reported, up from 23 in 2003.
  • In Greece, 24 casualties reported, doubled from 12 in 2003.
  • In Kuwait, 20 casualties reported, significantly up from two in 2003.
  • In Belarus, 16 casualties reported, up from nine in 2003.
  • In Armenia, 15 casualties reported, up from eight in 2003.

In 2005, landmine/UXO casualties continue to be reported in every region of the world, including:

  • In Cambodia, 594 new casualties recorded to the end of June, as compared to 596 casualties recorded in the same period in 2004.
  • In Colombia, 510 new casualties recorded to 1 August 2005.
  • In Afghanistan, 491 new casualties recorded to the end of June, an increase compared to the same period in 2004.
  • In Laos, 127 new casualties recorded to the end of July.
  • In Pakistan, 82 new casualties reported to early July.
  • In Vietnam, 81 new casualties reported to July.
  • In the Philippines, reported casualties increased significantly with 54 new casualties to May, more than reported for the full year in 2004.
  • In Sudan, 50 new casualties recorded in the first six months.
  • In Somaliland, 38 new casualties recorded to August.
  • In Angola, 36 new casualties recorded in the first six months, a significant decrease as compared to 2004.
  • In DR Congo, 21 new casualties recorded in the first eight months.
  • In Mozambique, 20 new casualties recorded to the end of August.
  • In Yemen, reported casualties increased significantly with 19 new casualties to August 2005, more than reported for the full year in 2004.
  • In Croatia, 14 new casualties to the end of July.
  • In Rwanda, reported casualties increased significantly with 14 new casualties to June, more than reported for the full year in 2004.
  • In Tajikistan, 14 new casualties recorded to 30 April, the same number reported for the full year in 2004.
  • In Guinea-Bissau, 12 new casualties recorded to the end of August, a significant decrease as compared to 2004.

The number of new casualties is only a small indicator of the landmine problem. More important is the number of mine survivors that need and have a right to assistance. While the number of reported new landmine casualties is dropping in many mine-affected countries the number of landmine survivors continues to increase.

The exact number of mine survivors globally is unknown. Through Landmine Impact Surveys and increased data collection more information is becoming available. Landmine Monitor has identified more than 247,750 mine survivors recorded in 97 countries[6] and eight areas. While some incidents date back to the end of the Second World War, the vast majority of survivors were injured from the mid-1970s onwards. This figure does not include estimates of up to 100,000 or more mine survivors in Afghanistan, or of foreign soldiers injured during the Vietnam War in the 1970s, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s, or the first Gulf War in 1990. It is unknown how many of these recorded survivors are still living. Given the high number of casualties that likely have never been recorded, it is reasonable to assume that there are somewhere between 300,000 and 400,000 mine survivors in the world today.

Many countries with no new reported landmine casualties nevertheless have landmine survivors that continue to require assistance. In addition to the 58 countries where mine/UXO incidents were reported in 2004-2005, Landmine Monitor has identified another 63 countries with mine/UXO survivors including 17 non-affected countries with nationals injured abroad in mine incidents and accidents, and two with known survivors but no available statistics.[7] Almost two-thirds of the countries in the world–121 countries–are affected to some extent by the landmine/UXO problem and the issue of survivors.

Addressing the Needs of Survivors

Mine Ban Treaty States Parties have agreed to promote a comprehensive integrated approach to victim assistance that rests on a three-tiered definition of a landmine victim. This means that a “mine victim” includes directly affected individuals, their families, and mine-affected communities. Consequently, victim assistance is viewed as a wide range of activities that benefit individuals, families and communities.[8] Throughout Landmine Monitor Report 2005 the term “survivor assistance” is used in the country reports to describe activities aimed at the individuals directly affected by a landmine incident. The use of the term “survivor” is intended to emphasize this distinction.

Furthermore, States Parties have recognized that mine survivors are part of a larger community of persons with injuries and disabilities, and that victim assistance efforts should not exclude persons injured or disabled by other causes. The Final Report of the First Review Conference noted that “the impetus provided by the Convention to assist mine victims has provided an opportunity to enhance the well-being of not only landmine victims but also all other persons with war-related injuries and persons with disabilities.”[9] Landmine Monitor provides information on facilities available to persons with disabilities regardless of the cause of disability and where possible identifies the number of mine survivors accessing these services.

Knowledge of the problems faced by mine survivors and the facilities and programs available to assist them is increasing. Many landmine survivors do not have access to some of the most basic needs: food security, access to water, adequate housing, roads, a way to earn an income, healthcare, and access to the lifelong rehabilitation services that many need. Mine survivors and other persons with disabilities are among the most impoverished groups in every society.

The needs of landmine survivors are long-term, in many instances lasting a lifetime. Often having a disability means not being fully included in society, and traditionally assistance was addressed in a medical or charitable way, providing segregated services for people with disabilities. This approach did not involve a focus on the rights and capacities of people with disabilities to contribute as active members of society. As a consequence, people with disabilities organized themselves in Disabled People’s Organizations to promote a rights-based and social approach to disability, with the aim to change society so that it is inclusive. “Nothing about us without us” is the catch-cry of this movement and is the guiding principle for the debate on disability. The most common approach to the disability issue is the twin-track approach, based on mainstreaming disability issues into all levels of society and development, while not losing sight of certain special needs of people with disabilities.

States Parties have also recognized that assistance to mine survivors must be considered in the broader context of development and underdevelopment. They have agreed that mine victim assistance should be integrated into poverty reduction strategies and long-term development plans to ensure sustainability and to avoid unnecessary segregation of survivors.[10]

The Mine Ban Treaty requires, in Article 6, Paragraph 3, that “Each State in a position to do so shall provide assistance for the care and rehabilitation, and social and economic reintegration, of mine victims....” Many mine survivors are benefiting from the increased attention given to the issue of victim assistance by States Parties and others. Nevertheless, many mine survivors are still not able to access the facilities needed for their complete rehabilitation and reintegration, and many local and international NGOs report that a lack of funding, especially long-term funding, is limiting their operations and sustainability of programs. There is a greater understanding about the extent of the problem, and that existing programs are far from meeting the needs. It would appear that additional outside assistance continues to be needed in providing for the care and rehabilitation of mine survivors.

Capacities of Affected States to Provide Assistance to Landmine Survivors

The Final Report of the First Review Conference reiterated the six key components of landmine victim assistance: data collection; emergency and continuing medical care; physical rehabilitation and prosthetics; psychological support and social reintegration; economic reintegration; and disability laws and public policies.[11]

A detailed analysis of efforts and capacities of mine-affected States to address the needs of landmine survivors, and persons with disabilities in general, is beyond the scope of the research undertaken for Landmine Monitor. Based on a purely quantitative analysis of the information available in the Landmine Monitor Report 2005, it would appear that most countries have facilities to address some of the needs of landmine survivors.

However, Landmine Monitor has found that in at least 51 of the 58 countries with new mine casualties in 2004-2005, and in six areas, one or more aspects of survivor assistance are reportedly inadequate to meet the needs of mine survivors and other persons with disabilities. Even when services exist, they are often long distances from mine-affected areas, making them inaccessible to many survivors, are too expensive for survivors to afford, or are bureaucratically off-limits to one group or another. Assistance in the area that has been identified as the top priority for many mine survivors–economic reintegration–continues to be lacking in the majority of countries.

Research collected by Landmine Monitor in 2004-2005 identifies the same key problems noted in previous years:

  • Most services are located in urban centers, but the majority of mine survivors are found in rural areas where the concentration of mine pollution is greatest;
  • The majority of resources are directed toward medical care and the provision of orthopedic appliances;
  • The availability of assistance in psychosocial support and economic reintegration is limited;
  • Many mine-affected countries suffer from a lack of adequately trained healthcare and rehabilitation providers, and look to international organizations, NGOs and UN agencies to assist in the delivery of services to mine survivors;
  • Local NGOs and health/rehabilitation infrastructures often lack the financial resources and capacity to continue programs after international organizations have withdrawn;
  • Ongoing conflict, and the consequent security concerns, in some mine-affected countries severely limits the ability of the government and international agencies to provide assistance to landmine survivors;
  • The economic situation of many mine-affected countries and landmine survivors remain an obstacle to the provision of adequate assistance.

Data Collection

At the First Review Conference, States Parties acknowledged “the value and necessity of accurate and up-to-date data on the number of new landmine casualties, the total number of survivors and their specific needs, and the extent/lack of and quality of services that exist to address their needs....”[12] In mine-affected country reports in Landmine Monitor Report 2005, information is provided on the facilities that have been identified as assisting landmine survivors and other persons with disabilities. Many facilities have been asked to report on how many people were assisted in the previous year, and how many were landmine survivors. Landmine Monitor was not always able to get this information and some facilities do not keep records on the cause of injury, as all persons with disabilities are treated equally. Some facilities reported not having the capacity to record any form of data. However, considerable information about landmine casualties is available. The problem is that it is not collected in a systematic or centralized way so that the data can be verified, aggregated and effectively analyzed. Nevertheless, while acknowledging that the data is far from complete, it does give an indication of where additional attention may be needed in landmine survivor assistance.

The information on survivor assistance activities in Landmine Monitor Report 2005 is not exhaustive, and it is likely that information on the activities of some local and international NGOs providing services and activities undertaken by governmental agencies is not included. Landmine Monitor would welcome more input from governmental and nongovernmental agencies and organizations on their survivor assistance activities for future editions of this report. Nevertheless, through the research undertaken, Landmine Monitor has attempted to provide an indication of the progress and problems faced in addressing the needs of mine survivors. Following are examples of some of the key findings and developments in 2004 and early 2005.

Emergency and Continuing Medical Care

Emergency and continuing medical care includes first aid and management of injuries in the immediate aftermath of a landmine explosion, surgery, pain management, acute hospital care, and the ongoing medical care needed for the physical recovery of the mine survivor. In 2004, Landmine Monitor identified more than 2,266 landmine/UXO casualties in hospital records, including 66 casualties in Africa, 321 in Americas, 1,236 in Asia-Pacific, 348 in Europe and Central Asia, and 295 in Middle East and North Africa. Landmine Monitor also identified more than 1,296 doctors, surgeons, nurses, first aid providers and community health workers received training: 103 local healthcare providers in Africa, 470 in Americas, 613 in Asia-Pacific, 75 in Europe and Central Asia, and 35 in Middle East and North Africa.

  • In Afghanistan, the Landmine Impact Survey found that only 10 percent of mine-impacted communities had healthcare facilities of any kind.
  • In Albania, in November 2004, mobile x-ray equipment and orthopedic surgical kits were delivered to the main hospital in the mine-affected area to improve its surgical capacity; two surgeons and an anesthetist received training in Slovenia.
  • In Burma, presentations on war surgery, including amputation and other care for mine casualties, were made at an annual military medical conference at Mingaladon Military Hospital; mobile healthcare teams were able to access previously restricted areas of Mon, Karen and Karenni states.
  • In Burundi, in July 2004, the government signed a memorandum of understanding with UNHCR, UNICEF and the World Health Organization to improve the quality of healthcare.
  • In Chechnya, in July 2004, the No. 1 Central Town Hospital in Gudermes was re-opened, and in February and May 2005 two hospitals in Grozny were re-opened.
  • In DR Congo, some health workers have reportedly not received a state salary for more than a decade.
  • In Iran, in November 2004 in Tehran, the Regional Seminar on Prevention and Treatment of Landmine Injuries brought together over 200 people dealing with the medical and educational aspects of the landmine problem in Iran.
  • In Iraq, 12 percent of health facilities were damaged and seven percent were looted during the war, including two of the three rehabilitation hospitals forcing them to close.
  • In Laos, improved medical services are contributing to a decrease in the number of casualties that die as a result of their injuries.
  • In Somalia, preliminary results from the Landmine Impact Survey Phase II found that in mine-affected communities in Bari, Nugaal and North Mudug healthcare structures are largely nonexistent.
  • In Sri Lanka, the 26 December tsunami caused devastation to the health sector, particularly in the northeast region, with several major hospitals damaged, and a large number of smaller health centers completely or partially destroyed.
  • In Sudan, a sample of casualties recorded in the NMAO database indicated that it took five hours or longer for 20 percent of casualties to reach the first medical facility.
  • In Yemen, in December 2004, the Iranian Red Crescent opened a new 70-bed medical center/hospital in Sana’a with advanced facilities for eye surgery and emergencies.

Physical Rehabilitation

Physical rehabilitation includes the provision of services for rehabilitation, physiotherapy and the supply of prosthetics/orthotics and assistive devices, such as wheelchairs and crutches, to promote the physical well-being of mine survivors with limb loss, abdominal, chest and spinal injuries, loss of eyesight, or deafness.

In 2004, Landmine Monitor identified more than 140,128 people with disabilities receiving physical rehabilitation services, including at least 6,978 landmine/UXO survivors: 27,206 people (703 survivors) in Africa; 8,990 (380 survivors) in Americas; 72,369 (4,791 survivors) in Asia-Pacific; 22,772 (846 survivors) in Europe and Central Asia; and 8,791 (258 survivors) in Middle East and North Africa. Landmine Monitor also identified more than 489 rehabilitation specialists, including prosthetic/orthotic technicians, physical therapists, doctors and nurses who received training in 2004: 157 rehabilitation specialists in Africa; 16 in Americas; 124 in Asia-Pacific; 192 in Europe and Central Asia; none were identified in Middle East and North Africa. This does not include rehabilitation specialists who receive regular on-the-job training.

  • In Afghanistan, disability services exist in only 20 of the 34 provinces.
  • In Albania, in November 2004, 30 nurses from mine-affected villages received training in basic rehabilitation skills.
  • In Algeria, the National Algerian Office for Equipment and Accessories for Disabled People resumed treatment and the provision of artificial limbs and mobility devices to disabled veterans and war victims at Ben Aknoun hospital in Algiers.
  • In Angola, physical rehabilitation centers are in the process of being nationalized. In early 2005, 12 Angolan technicians were sent to El Salvador to undertake a three-year prosthetic training program at the Don Bosco University; a community-based rehabilitation project was started in the provinces of Benguela, Huíla and Namibe.
  • In Azerbaijan in 2004, the government opened a rehabilitation center in Sumgayit, and will open another center in Sheki city in 2005.
  • In Cambodia, at the end of 2004, there were 11 physical rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops covering 24 provinces in Cambodia, a decrease from 14 in early 2003.
  • In Colombia, at least three new programs started to facilitate the physical rehabilitation of mine survivors and other people with disabilities.
  • In Eritrea, in 2004, the Maekel National Prosthetic and Orthopedic Center outside of Asmara became operational.
  • In Ethiopia, in August 2005 a new physical rehabilitation center was opened in Bahir Dar.
  • In Guinea-Bissau, there is only one functioning rehabilitation center to serve the entire country.
  • In India, in 2004, ICRC began supporting the prosthetic/orthopedic department of the Jammu Government Medical College.
  • In Iraq, physical rehabilitation services are reportedly inadequate to meet the needs of mine survivors and other persons with disabilities and the authorities lack the financial resources to maintain existing facilities.
  • In Jordan, construction commenced in August 2004 on the new National Rehabilitation Center for Amputees.
  • In Laos, occupational therapy and physiotherapy mentoring programs were started in 2004, and in 2005, a community-based rehabilitation program was expanded to serve more communities.
  • In Nepal, in May 2004, ICRC initiated a new physical rehabilitation program to assist the Green Pasture Hospital and Rehabilitation Center in Pokhara.
  • In Pakistan, following an assessment mission in August 2004, ICRC initiated a physical rehabilitation program to ensure that people from conflict areas and in refugee camps have safe access to services.
  • In Palestine, in March 2005, two new physiotherapy centers opened in Hebron.
  • In the Philippines, in early 2005 a new project was launched in which a specially equipped orthopedic boat travels between islands to make customized artificial limbs and provide rehabilitation.
  • In Sri Lanka, a new physical rehabilitation center was opened in Batticaloa, and in May 2005, the School of Prosthetics and Orthotics started training.
  • In Sudan, only 16 rehabilitation workers are available in mine-affected areas. In January 2005, ICRC started Sudan’s first internationally recognized diploma course in prosthetics and orthotics.
  • In Thailand, in September 2004, the Health Care and Rehabilitation Program for Landmine Victims was started. Also in 2004, a three-year community-based rehabilitation pilot program was launched in five provinces to address the needs of people with disabilities in rural areas.
  • In Uganda, in 2004, a new three-year program for persons with disabilities started in the northern districts of Gulu, Kitgum, Pader, Apac and Lira, and in the West Nile districts of Nebbi and Arua.

Supply of Prosthetics/Orthotics/Assistive Devices

  • In 2004, ICRC-supported prosthetic/orthotic centers produced at least 22,495 prostheses (13,239 for mine survivors), 20,937 orthoses (226 for mine survivors), 47,467 crutches, and 1,718 wheelchairs.
  • In 2004, based on limited data, other government or NGO supported prosthetic/orthotic centers produced at least 44,086 prostheses, 30,740 orthoses, 25,266 crutches, 18,454 wheelchairs or tricycles, 31,323 other assistive devices and components, and repaired at 8,401 orthopedic devices. At least 1,260 orthopedic devices were for mine/UXO survivors.
  • In total, Landmine Monitor identified 250,887 prostheses, orthoses, walking aids, components or other assistive devices produced, distributed or repaired in 2004, including at least 14,725 for mine/UXO survivors: 48,413 orthopedic aids (at least 2,864 for mine/UXO survivors) in Africa; 6,590 (at least 156 for survivors) in Americas; 107,525 (at least 10,541 for survivors) in Asia-Pacific; 53,357 (at least 237 for survivors) in Europe and Central Asia; and 35,002 (at least 927 for survivors) in Middle East and North Africa.

Psychosocial Support and Social Reintegration

Psychological support and social reintegration includes activities that assist mine survivors, and the families of those killed or injured, to overcome the psychological trauma of a landmine explosion and promote their social well-being. These activities include community-based peer support groups, associations for the disabled, sporting and related activities, and professional counseling.

Landmine Monitor identified at least 14,214 people with disabilities that benefited from psychosocial support and social reintegration activities, including at least 5,926 survivors: 3,560 people (492 mine/UXO survivors) in Africa; 569 (503 survivors) in Americas; 4,233 (956 survivors) in Asia-Pacific; 1,630 (968 survivors) in Europe and Central Asia; and 4,222 (3,007 survivors) in Middle East and North Africa.

  • Several mine survivors participated in the Paralympic Games in Athens in September 2004.
  • In Afghanistan, the Afghan Disabled Union was founded by a mine survivor to develop advocacy and awareness activities and research.
  • In Armenia, according to doctors in Tavush region less than 10 percent of mine survivors have access to psychosocial rehabilitation.
  • In Croatia, in January 2005 construction started on the regional psychosocial support center in Rovinj.
  • In Iraq, there are very few trained social workers, psychologists and nurses available to provide psychological support to mine casualties and other war casualties.
  • In Sudan, hospitals and health centers have few staff trained in psychosocial support and discrimination issues.
  • In Tajikistan, there are no trained specialists in psychological support in the hospitals or clinics that treat mine survivors, or peer support groups.
  • In Yemen, in September 2004, the Yemen Association for Landmine and UXO Survivors was launched.

Economic Reintegration

Economic reintegration is generally understood as being assistance programs “that improve the economic status of mine victims...through education, economic development of the community infrastructure and the creation of employment opportunities.”[13] The majority of mine survivors, and other persons with disabilities, are among the poorest in mine-affected countries and the lack of access to employment opportunities is a common concern. As noted by the World Rehabilitation Fund and UNDP, for many mine survivors their most important issue is “not the medical rehabilitation services, but assistance in helping them to resume their roles as productive community members and contributors to their families’ well being.”[14]

Landmine Monitor identified 29,929 disabled people assisted with vocational training and/or other income generation activities in 2004, including at least 7,190 mine/UXO survivors: 10,156 people in Africa (at least 1,017 survivors); 506 in Americas (at least 140 survivors); 16,406 in Asia-Pacific (at least 5,569 survivors); 1,163 in Europe and Central Asia (at least 232 survivors); and 1,698 in Middle East and North Africa (at least 232 mine survivors).

  • In Afghanistan, the Landmine Impact Survey found that of 1,323 recent mine survivors only 29 (two percent) had received vocational training since the incident.
  • In Armenia, only five of 34 survivors interviewed (15 percent) were currently employed.
  • In Jordan, in March 2005, an agreement was signed by the Ministry of Social Development and a vocational training center to facilitate socioeconomic reintegration by ensuring that mine survivors receive the same employment and training opportunities as their non-disabled peers.
  • In Senegal, socioeconomic reintegration programs are integrated into the Poverty Reduction Strategy through national development plans.
  • In Somalia, of 43 recent survivors, 12 were unemployed before the incident, increasing to 21 unemployed after the incident.
  • In Sudan, according to the NMAO database, more than 75 percent of survivors either lost or changed their job after the mine/UXO incident.
  • In Tajikistan, in January 2005, a new program was initiated to facilitate access to income generation opportunities for mine survivors in six districts.
  • In Uganda, in April 2004, a new program started in Gulu District to provide vocational training, revolving loans, and other support for income generating activities.
  • In Yemen, the government’s Poverty Reduction Strategy includes the objective of establishing training centers for persons with disabilities.

Disability Policy and Practice

States Parties have recognized the need for legislation and actions “that promote effective treatment, care and protection of all disabled citizens.”[15] Landmine survivor assistance, as with assistance for all persons with disabilities, is more than just a medical and rehabilitation issue; it is also a human rights issue. Landmine Monitor has identified over 50 mine-affected countries or areas with legislation or measures explicitly protecting the rights of people with disabilities; in other countries people with disabilities are protected by common law. However, in many instances these laws are not fully implemented or enforced.

  • In Albania, in January 2005, a new National Strategy on People with Disabilities was approved by the Council of Ministers. In April 2005, a new law entitling all persons with disabilities to pensions was adopted.
  • In Bosnia and Herzegovina, on 1 January 2005 in the Republika Srpska a new law on military and civilian mine victims was implemented.
  • In Cambodia, in 2005 a new revised Draft Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was submitted to the Council of Ministries for approval.
  • In Croatia, the legal provisions for mine survivors were extended with the December 2004 Law on the Rights of Croatian Participants in the Civil War and Members of their Families, and the 2005 Law on Professional Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Disabilities.
  • In Malawi, in the last sitting of parliament in 2004, a new national disability policy was approved.
  • In Morocco, in September 2004 a disability census was launched which will lead to the creation of a new national action plan in 2006.
  • In Pakistan, in April 2005, a two-day workshop entitled National Consultation on National Plan of Action to Implement National Policy for Persons with Disabilities was convened in Islamabad.
  • In Poland, on 1 January 2004, a new law gave people permanently unable to work as a result of war-related injuries, including mine and UXO survivors, entitlement to compensation.
  • In Somalia, in December 2004 a new transitional government was created which includes the Ministry of Disabled and Orphans.
  • In Sri Lanka, the Minister of Social Services obtained approval from the Cabinet of Ministers to ensure that all post-tsunami reconstruction projects consider the issue of accessibility for disabled persons in accord with the National Disability Standards.
  • In Syria, in July 2004, a new national law to protect the rights of persons with disabilities was issued by the President.

Coordination and Planning

States Parties have recognized the need to develop plans of action to address the needs and rights of mine survivors and other persons with disabilities, and to integrate planning into broader development or poverty reduction strategies.[16]

  • In Afghanistan, in September 2004 UNDP took over responsibility for the Comprehensive Disabled Afghans Program and developed a new project, the National Program for Action on Disability.
  • In Bosnia and Herzegovina, victim assistance is a sub-strategy of the BHMAC Mine Action Strategy covering 2005-2009.
  • In Croatia, the National Action Plan for 2005-2009 includes victim assistance and rehabilitation which is mainly organized and conducted by NGOs in cooperation with the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  • Eritrea intends to link survivor assistance with its Millennium Development Goals until 2015.
  • In Jordan, in June 2005 the National Mine Action Plan for 2005-2009 was released with the objective to “[d]evelop and deliver a coherent and coordinated national SVA [Survivor and Victim Assistance] policy and programme which integrates physical rehabilitation and social reintegration for all landmine victims and survivors.”
  • In Lebanon, in December 2004 the National Demining Office launched its End-State Strategy which aims to achieve the successful reintegration of mine/UXO survivors into society “with appropriate support for individual cases provided through a national system.”
  • In Malawi, the five-year plan of action (2005-2009) includes the objective of improving the level of victim assistance.
  • In Mozambique, a draft national plan of action for disability is current under review.
  • In Serbia and Montenegro, in 2004, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Montenegro established a Commission for APM Victims, and in the Republic of Serbia, the Council of Health Workers was established.
  • In Sudan, the National Mine Action Strategic Framework includes victim assistance.
  • In Uganda, the main strategy is to mainstream mine victim assistance into development programs.
  • In Zambia, mine survivor assistance programs will be mainstreamed into the national development program.

Challenges in Providing Adequate, Appropriate, and Sustainable Assistance

Research undertaken by Landmine Monitor indicates that while progress is being made, there is still much work to be done. Most mine-affected countries continue to experience similar problems as in previous years, though to varying degrees, and several key challenges remain that need to be addressed to ensure that the growing number of mine survivors receive adequate and appropriate assistance.[17] These include:

  • Facilitating access to appropriate healthcare and rehabilitation facilities;
  • Addressing the affordability of appropriate healthcare and rehabilitation;
  • Improving and upgrading facilities for rehabilitation and psychosocial support;
  • Creating opportunities for employment and income generation;
  • Capacity-building and ongoing training of healthcare practitioners, including doctors, surgeons, nurses, physiotherapists and orthopedic technicians;
  • Capacity building of personnel within relevant government ministries, and of local associations of persons with disabilities;
  • Raising awareness of the rights of persons with disabilities;
  • Establishing an effective legal and social welfare system to protect the rights of all persons with disabilities, including mine victims;
  • Supporting local NGOs and agencies to ensure the participation of people with disabilities in issues that most concern them, and to promote appropriate and sustainable programs;
  • Collaboration and coordination of all stakeholders, including local, national and international agencies, in relation to resources, planning and training;
  • Obtaining sufficient funding to support programs, and coordination of donor support;
  • Engaging the relevant government ministries in mine-affected countries in the planning and implementation of programs.

Nairobi Action Plan, States Parties, and Landmine Victim Assistance

The Mine Ban Treaty is the first multilateral disarmament treaty in history to call for assistance to the victims of the banned weapon. The First Review Conference in November-December 2004 provided an opportunity to further raise awareness on the rights and needs of mine survivors and other persons with disabilities, and to encourage States Parties to allocate sufficient efforts and resources to facilitate the full rehabilitation, reintegration and participation of mine survivors and other people with disabilities. While progress has been made in assistance to landmine survivors, States Parties identified a number of key challenges to be addressed in the period 2005-2009 to fulfill the promise to mine survivors that the treaty implied.

The States Parties at the First Review Conference acknowledged that all States have a responsibility to assist mine survivors. However, 24 States Parties were identified as having significant numbers of mine survivors, and the “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing adequate services for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors. The 24 which will be “a more focused challenge” for States Parties in the period 2005-2009 include Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Colombia, Croatia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Perú, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Sudan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Uganda and Yemen.[18] In 2004-2005, 23 of the 24 states reported new mine casualties,[19] accounting for 57 percent (3,729 of 6,521) of casualties recorded by Landmine Monitor in 2004, and 39 percent of identified mine/UXO survivors in 97 countries.

With respect to victim assistance, the Nairobi Action Plan for the period 2005-2009 aims to “enhance the care, rehabilitation and reintegration efforts” through actions for both mine-affected and non-affected States Parties:[20]

  • Action #29: Establish and enhance health-care services needed to respond to immediate and ongoing medical needs of mine victims;
  • Action #30: Increase national physical rehabilitation capacity;
  • Action #31: Develop capacities to meet the psychological and social support needs of mine victims;
  • Action #32: Actively support the socio-economic reintegration of mine victims;
  • Action #33: Ensure that national legal and policy frameworks effectively address the needs and fundamental human rights of mine victims;
  • Action #34: Develop or enhance national mine victim data collection capacities;
  • Action #35: Ensure that, in all victim assistance efforts, emphasis is given to age and gender considerations;
  • Action #36: Act upon their obligation under Article 6 (3) to promptly assist those States Parties with clearly demonstrated needs for external support;
  • Action #37: Monitor and promote progress in the achievement of victim assistance goals in the 2005-2009 period;
  • Action #38: Ensure effective integration of mine victims in the work of the Convention;
  • Action #39: Ensure an effective contribution in all relevant deliberations by health, rehabilitation and social services professionals and officials.

The Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration (SC-VA) has been an integral mechanism in advancing understanding and identifying needs in relation to mine victim assistance among the States Parties. Mine survivors, the ICBL, ICRC and numerous NGOs have worked closely with States Parties to advance the important work of the SC-VA. In 2005, the SC-VA has increased it efforts in order to ensure the successful implementation of the Nairobi Action Plan over the next five years.

Since December 2004, Nicaragua and Norway have served as co-chairs of the SC-VA and Afghanistan and Switzerland have served as co-rapporteurs (they are expected to become co-chairs in December 2005).

In early 2005, the co-chairs developed a questionnaire, with assistance from the Implementation Support Unit, and in consultation with key stakeholders including the ICBL, to assist the 24 most affected States Parties in developing a plan of action in relation to mine victim assistance. The questionnaire called for responses to four key questions: what is the situation in 2005 in each of the six main thematic areas of victim assistance; what does the state wish the situation to be (objectives) in each of the six thematic areas by 2009; what are the plans to achieve these objectives in each of the six thematic areas by 2009; and what means are available or required to implement these plans. The co-chairs sent the questionnaire to the 24 States Parties in March 2005 with the aim of these States Parties producing objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound (SMART).[21] Two regional workshops were organized by the co-chairs in the Americas (Managua, Nicaragua, 26-27 April 2005) and in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, 31 May-2 June 2005) to allow the relevant states to share experiences and develop their answers to the questionnaire. The workshop in the Americas was attended by Colombia, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Perú, and in Africa by Angola, Burundi, DR Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Senegal, Sudan and Uganda.

At the intersessional meeting of the SC-VA in June 2005, 18 of the 24 States Parties receiving focused attention provided updates on their plans, progress and priorities for mine victim assistance, and their problems in meeting the needs: Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, Cambodia, Colombia, Croatia, El Salvador, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Perú, Sudan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Uganda and Yemen. One state not party to the Mine Ban Treaty, Lebanon, also shared its experiences. Three States Parties reported on their policies and initiatives to support mine-affected states in providing funding and other assistance to mine victims in 2005: Australia, Canada and Japan.[22]

As of 26 September 2005, 16 of the 24 States Parties had provided some information on their victim assistance objectives for 2005-2009. The co-chairs have continued to provide follow-up and the necessary assistance in the development of SMART objectives with the 24 States Parties, with the intention of producing a compilation of objectives for the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in Zagreb in November-December 2005.[23] The next phase in the process will be turning objectives into concrete plans of action that will ensure that mine survivors and other persons with disabilities receive adequate and appropriate care.

The ICBL’s Working Group on Victim Assistance (WGVA) continued to participate actively in the 2005 SC-VA meetings. The co-chairs (Handicap International and Ugandan landmine survivor Margaret Arach Orech), the Landmine Monitor thematic research coordinator on victim assistance, Landmine Survivors Network, and mine survivors from Cambodia and Sri Lanka worked together to keep members and States Parties informed on aspects of progress and problems in the implementation of Article 6.3. In June 2005, the WGVA and its member NGOs presented three documents aimed at increasing the level of knowledge on survivor assistance: “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors” (with support from Australia, Canada and Norway); “National Frameworks Relating to Persons with Disabilities in Heavily Mine-Affected Countries;” and “Landmine Victim Assistance in 2004: Overview of the Situation in 24 States Parties” (supported by Australia).

As of 31 August 2005, a total of 35 States Parties had submitted the voluntary Form J with their 2005 Article 7 reports to report on victim assistance activities or mine action funding more generally: 20 mine-affected States Parties (Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Malawi, Mozambique, Perú, Serbia and Montenegro, Sudan, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Zimbabwe); and 15 non-affected States Parties (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden).  In addition, one mine-affected States Party (Yemen) provided victim assistance information in Form I of its Article 7 report.  Sri Lanka submitted a voluntary Article 7 report with Form J to report on its disability policy and other issues.[24]

Other International Developments

On 28 November 2004, a Survivors Summit, organized by Landmine Survivors Network, was convened in Nairobi bringing together 45 survivors from 30 countries and key government representatives to discuss survivors’ needs and submit a declaration to the States Parties meeting for the First Review Conference. The survivors also participated in the marathon Running for a Mine-Free World, on bicycles (a mine survivor won the bicycle race), on foot, or in wheelchairs. The Survivors Summit Declaration was presented to the president of the conference. The Declaration acknowledged the work that has been done but called on all governments to do more to ensure the rights and needs of mine survivors and other persons with disabilities are met, and that survivors are included in decision-making processes.[25]

From 29 March to 2 April 2005, mine survivors from Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan met in Kampala, Uganda, for the first Landmine Survivors Exchange program, in cooperation with the Interfaith Action for Peace in Africa Initiative. A second survivor meeting was held in Uganda from 29-31 August 2005 for landmine survivors from Uganda, Eritrea, Sudan and Rwanda supported by Austria.

On 9-10 May 2005, Landmine Survivors Network organized the Approaches to Recovery and Reintegration of Survivors of War-Related Injuries conference. Survivors from 37 countries gathered in Washington DC to discuss recovery and resilience after injury from landmines or UXO. Participants exchanged stories on how peer support, the use of sports in rehabilitation, and economic opportunities for people with disabilities can affect an individual’s overall recovery.

Negotiations continue on the draft text of the Comprehensive and Integral Convention on Protection and Promotion of Human Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities. The Working Group tasked with developing the draft text is comprised of 27 governmental representatives and 12 NGO representatives, particularly organizations of, and for, persons with disabilities. The Working Group prepared a draft text, which was discussed at the Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Session of the Ad Hoc Committee in 2004 and 2005. The Sixth Session was held from 1 to 12 August 2005 and the Seventh is scheduled for January 2006. Negotiations are expected to be concluded by the end of 2006. The proposed Convention has had a significant impact on putting disability rights on government agendas.[26]

On 16-17 March 2005, a conference was convened in Amman, Jordan, entitled The Arab Parliamentary Symposium on Legislating Issues in the Arab World. Members of Parliament and ministries dealing with the issue of disability in 12 Middle Eastern countries, together with disability experts and EU and NGO representatives, discussed implementation of the proposed Disability Convention, the need to enact and review legislation on disability, and the need to support coordination and cooperation between governments and disability organizations in order to activate the Arab Decade for Persons with Disabilities.


[1] For the purposes of Landmine Monitor research, casualties include the individual killed or injured as a result of an incident involving antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines, improvised explosive devices, dud cluster munitions, and other unexploded ordnance. When it was clear that a device was command-denoted these incidents were excluded. From the information available in many countries it is not always possible to determine with certainty the type of weapon that caused the incident. Where this level of detail is available, information is included in the country report. If only incidents caused by UXO are identified in a particular country, then that country is not included in the table.

[2] These include Abkhazia, Chechnya, Kosovo, Nagorno-Karabakh, Palestine, Somaliland, Taiwan and Western Sahara.

[3] In comparison, 8,270 new mine/UXO casualties were identified in 2003. However, the number of reported new casualties should be viewed as a minimum, as some heavily mine-affected countries were not able to provide statistics for the full year or for the whole country, for example, Iraq, where 261 casualties were recorded compared to 2,189 last year. Some reports refer to several people killed or injured without giving a specific figure; these reports and any with estimates are not included in the total. Furthermore, the figures for mine casualties involving women and children should also be viewed as a minimum; the gender and age of casualties is often not identified in reports.

[4] This is a significant increase from less than 14 percent military casualties reported last year. Landmine Monitor does not believe this is indicative of a change, overall, in the impact of the landmine problem on civilians, but rather is reflective of the information that is available. In mine-affected countries where the media is the main source of information, it is predominantly military casualties which the media report. In Colombia, for example, where a data collection mechanism has been established and the country is experiencing armed conflict, 71 percent of 863 recorded casualties in 2004 were military personnel (63 percent in 2003, 49 percent in 2002). Reported mine/UXO casualties in Colombia account for 13 percent of casualties recorded by Landmine Monitor in 2004. Therefore, the high percentage of military casualties in Colombia impacts on the overall global percentage of military to civilian casualties. In contrast, in Cambodia, a country at peace, only one percent of 898 casualties were military.

[5] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Mike Kendellen, Director for Survey, Survey Action Center, 7 September 2005. LIS results from Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Lebanon, Mozambique, Somalia, Thailand and Yemen. “Recent” casualties refer to casualties in the 24 months prior to the date of survey.

[6] In addition to the mine-affected countries, mine and UXO survivors have been identified in: Bolivia, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, Estonia, Hungary, Kenya, Indonesia, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Nigeria, Panama, Republic of Congo, Suriname, Tanzania and Timor Leste.

[7] Mine survivors from Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Fiji, France, Germany, Italy, Moldova, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Romania, South Africa, Swaziland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States, have not been included in the total of 247,750 mine survivors identified in 97 countries.

[8] United Nations, Final Report, First Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 27.

[9] Final Report of the First Review Conference, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 27.

[10] Final Report of the First Review Conference, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 28.

[11] Final Report of the First Review Conference, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 28.

[12] Final Report of the First Review Conference, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 29.

[13] Jack Victor, Steven Estey and Heather Burns Knierim, “Guidelines for the Socio-economic Reintegration of Landmine Survivors,” World Rehabilitation Fund and United Nations Development Programme, August 2003, p. 1.

[14] Jack Victor, Steven Estey and Heather Burns Knierim, “Guidelines for the Socio-economic Reintegration of Landmine Survivors,” World Rehabilitation Fund and United Nations Development Programme, August 2003, p. 1.

[15] Final Report of the First Review Conference, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, pp. 31-32.

[16] Final Report of the First Review Conference, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 32.

[17] For more information see Handicap International, “Lessons Learned Workshop: A Review of Assistance Programs for War Wounded and other Persons Living in Mine-Affected Countries,” Paris, 25-28 May 2004,; see also Handicap International, “Landmine Victim Assistance in South East Europe,” Brussels, September 2003,

[18] “Final Report of the First Review Conference, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 33. Ethiopia was added to the list of focus countries after ratifying the Mine Ban Treaty in December 2004.

[19] Perú did not report any new mine casualties in 2004 through June 2005.

[20] For more details see Final Report of the First Review Conference, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, pp. 99-101.

[21] “Efforts to assure that the 24 States Parties to the Convention which have reported significant numbers of landmine survivors develop 2009 victim assistance objectives in time for the 2005 Sixth Meeting of the States Parties: Update to interested stakeholders, 26 September 2005,” sent in email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Kerry Brinkert, Manager, Implementation Support Unit, 26 September 2005.

[22] More information on the SC-VA, including texts of presentations, is available at

[23] “Efforts to assure that the 24 States Parties to the Convention which have reported significant numbers of landmine survivors develop 2009 victim assistance objectives in time for the 2005 Sixth Meeting of the States Parties: Update to interested stakeholders, 26 September 2005,” sent in email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Kerry Brinkert, Manager, Implementation Support Unit, 26 September 2005.

[24] Eight other States Parties submitted Form J to report on other issues:  Belarus, Cyprus, DR Congo, Denmark, Estonia, Slovakia, Spain and Thailand.  Poland also submitted a voluntary Article 7 Report including Form J which reported on its mine action activities.

[25] The full text of the declaration is available at

[26] For more information see ; see also for all.