Landmine Monitor 2021

Banning Antipersonnel Mines

Jump to a specific section of the chapter:

Use | Universalization | Production | Transfers | Stockpiles | Transparency


As the international treaty prohibiting antipersonnel landmines enters its third decade of existence, it is hard to imagine a world without it. Adopted in September 1997, the Mine Ban Treaty has established a strong international framework for comprehensively eradicating these weapons.

In the reporting period, from mid-2020 to 1 October 2021, there was no evidence to indicate that any of the treaty’s 164 States Parties have violated its core obligations banning any use, production, and transfer of antipersonnel landmines. Collectively, States Parties have destroyed more than 55 million stockpiled antipersonnel mines, including more than 100,000 during 2020. While Sri Lanka successfully fulfilled its obligation to destroy its stockpiles, Greece and Ukraine must redouble their efforts to complete destruction of their stocks after repeatedly missing deadlines set by the treaty.

The power of norm-setting can also be seen in adherence by the 33 countries that remain outside of the Mine Ban Treaty, with a few notable exceptions. As in recent years, Landmine Monitor 2021 documents new use of antipersonnel mines by government forces in just one country, Myanmar, which has not joined the Mine Ban Treaty.

Additionally, non-state armed groups (NSAGs) used antipersonnel mines in at least six countries during the reporting period, including in States Parties Afghanistan, Colombia, and Nigeria; and states not party India, Myanmar, and Pakistan. This new use involved improvised antipersonnel landmines—victim-activated explosive devices made from locally-available materials.[1]

Universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty has lost momentum, despite ongoing efforts of the treaty’s tightknit community of states, United Nations (UN) agencies, international organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), and the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL). The last states to accede to the treaty were Sri Lanka and the State of Palestine, both in December 2017.

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact the Mine Ban Treaty, along with other humanitarian disarmament treaties such as the Convention on Cluster Munitions. However, States Parties are adapting, while the broader family supporting the treaty remains strongly committed to achieving its ultimate objective of putting an end to the suffering and casualties caused by antipersonnel mines.

Use of Antipersonnel Mines

Landmine Monitor identified new use of antipersonnel mines by Myanmar during the reporting period, while NSAGs in six countries also used antipersonnel mines, as listed in the table.

Locations of antipersonnel mine use: mid-2020–October 2021[2]

Use by states

Use by NSAGs








Note: States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty are indicated in bold.

New landmine use that is confirmed by the Monitor is detailed below.

There are indications that new use of antipersonnel mines occurred during the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh in late 2020, but it was not possible for the Monitor to either confirm new use or attribute responsibility to a specific combatant force.

Landmine use by government forces


Since the publication of its first annual report in 1999, Landmine Monitor has every year documented the use of antipersonnel mines in Myanmar by government forces—known as the Tatmadaw—and various NSAGs operating in the country.

Myanmar government officials have acknowledged ongoing landmine use by the Tatmadaw. In July 2019, an official at the Union Minister Office for Defence told the Monitor that landmines are still used by the Tatmadaw in border areas and around infrastructure.[3] In September 2016, Deputy Minister of Defence, Major General Myint Nwe, told the Myanmar parliament that the armed forces continue to use landmines in internal armed conflicts.[4]

Claims of new mine use by government forces during the reporting period include:

  • On 29 September 2021, one civilian was killed and two injured in Kayah state after they returned to a village following a raid by the Tatmadaw. A local militia said it had found 30 landmines left by the military.[5]
  • On 25 September 2021, an employee of a military-owned telecommunications company was seriously injured after stepping on a landmine placed outside a cell phone tower near Nant Hwe village in Muse township. This occurred after allegations that the Tatmadaw was mining the bases of mobile phone towers in response to a string of attacks by local militia groups.[6]
  • On 17 August 2021, a male farmer was injured by a landmine outside a Tatmadaw base in Usoungtaung village in Kyauktaw township, Rakhine state. According to locals, the area was commonly used by farmers and there were no landmine incidents in the area before.[7]
  • On 9 August 2021, villagers from Myi Tung Mare, in Kachin state’s Bhamo township, claimed that the Tatmadaw had planted a mine which killed a child tending cows near a Tatmadaw base.[8]
  • On 29 July 2021, two men were killed by a landmine emplaced where Tatmadaw soldiers had camped two days previously outside Thitnyinaung village in Pauk township, Magway region.[9]
  • On 8 June 2021, the UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Myanmar stated that he had received reports of mines laid by the Tatmadaw on public roads in Kayah state, in an apparent effort to blockade aid destined for displaced people.[10]
  • On 1 June 2021, Myanmar Border Guard Force Unit 1014, under the command of the Tatmadaw, reportedly laid mines in agricultural fields in Hpapun township, Kayin state, which killed one villager and left another wounded.[11]
  • Also in June 2021:

o There was a civilian casualty after Tatmadaw Infantry Brigade 142 reportedly laid mines around its base near Dawt Hpong Yang in Momauk township, Kachin state.[12]

o A local militia in Mindat township, Chin state, alleged that Tatmadaw forces were responsible for mine use which led to the death of a local child near Shat village.[13]

  • In May 2021:

o A Tatmadaw informant said that soldiers had laid mines in three locations in Hakha, in Chin state.[14]

o Villagers in Kutkai township, Shan state, alleged that Tatmadaw forces had laid mines near Namparchi village.[15]

o The Tatmadaw reportedly laid MM6-type mines along the Kyaukkyi-Hsaw Hta road in the Eastern Bago region during resupply operations.[16]

o The Tatmadaw reportedly laid mines to prevent entry to farms near Mae Klaw village in Hpapun township, Kayin state.[17]

  • In April 2021, Tatmadaw Light Infantry Brigade 434 reportedly laid mines near Boh Hta village in Hpapun township, Kayin state.[18]
  • Between February and May 2021, Tatmadaw soldiers reportedly laid mines on the road outside their base in Me Waing in Hpapun township, Kayin state, according to villagers.[19]
  • Unreported previously, in May 2020, Tatmadaw Light Infantry Brigade 434 reportedly emplaced mines around its base on the Thai border in Hpapun township, Kayin state.[20]

In October 2020, Myanmar rejected reports that it had laid mines on its border with Bangladesh.[21] Bangladesh expressed concern at the ongoing use of antipersonnel landmines by Myanmar forces on its border, and said “unfortunately, outright denial to such a fact-based report remains the only response from Myanmar.”[22]

Landmine use by NSAGs

During the reporting period, the Monitor identified new use of antipersonnel mines by NSAGs in Afghanistan, Colombia, India, Myanmar, Nigeria, and Pakistan. The Monitor also received reports during the reporting period of sporadic mine use by NSAGs in Cameroon,[23] Egypt,[24] Niger,[25] the Philippines,[26] Thailand,[27] Tunisia,[28] and Venezuela.[29] A lack of available information or means of independent verification meant it was not possible to determine if these incidents were the result of new use of antipersonnel mines during the preceding 12-month period or due to legacy contamination from mines laid previously.


In June 2021, Afghanistan stated that “improvised mines are still used by antigovernment elements as a weapon of choice” and that almost two-thirds of civilian casualties in the past 12 months were attributable to improvised mines.[30] NSAG use of improvised mines in previous years has resulted in very high casualties.[31] The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) attributed use of pressure-plate antipersonnel mines in 2020 “almost exclusively” to the Taliban, stating that this use had led to an increase in the number of casualties after three years of decline.[32] The use of improvised mines in Afghanistan has also been attributed to the Islamic State Khorasan Province.


Colombia’s 2021 Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report states that improvised antipersonnel landmines are still used by NSAGs, as well as criminal enterprises involved in the manufacture of narcotics and in illegal mineral extraction.[33] The Colombian government Office of the High Commissioner for Peace (Oficina del Alto Comisionado para la Paz, OACP) attributed responsibility for recent landmine use to residual or dissident Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, FARC) forces for 218 mine incidents in 2020, and to National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN) forces for 167 mine incidents in 2020. An additional 55 incidents were attributed to other armed groups, while 66 mine incidents occurred where the responsible group was unknown. In total, 506 new mine incidents were reported in Colombia in 2020.[34] As of 1 September 2021, OACP had registered 177 incidents for the calendar year, with 23 attributed to ELN forces, 110 attributed to residual FARC forces, and 44 attributed to other actors. Local media outlets in Colombia reported numerous landmine seizure incidents in late 2020 and early 2021.[35]


Maoist insurgents in India have made sporadic use of improvised mines. In early 2021, in the states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, villagers were killed or injured by improvised antipersonnel mines while gathering forest products. Police personnel were also killed or injured in mine incidents. The incidents were attributed by officials to pressure-plate activated mines laid by the Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-M) or its People’s Liberation Guerrilla Army (PLGA).[36] In July 2021, in Jharkhand, a villager taken by the armed forces to guide them in the jungle died after stepping on a landmine attributed to CPI-M.[37] In August 2020, two Adivasis (tribal people) were killed after they stepped on a mine laid by the PLGA in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh.[38] The CPI-M admitted responsibility for the incident to the family and by audio press note to the village where it occurred, claiming that they had laid the booby-trap for pursuing police forces.[39] In December 2019, a Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) officer was injured after stepping on a mine allegedly laid by the CPI-M near Lohardaga, in Jharkhand state. That same month, a girl was killed by a mine and five others were injured while visiting a waterfall in the same area.[40] In August 2019, in Kanker, Chhattisgarh state, a villager herding cattle was killed after stepping on a mine allegedly laid by the CPI-M. In July 2017, the Deputy Inspector General of Police in Chhattisgarh state told the state news agency that “Pressure IEDs planted randomly inside the forests in unpredictable places, where frequent de-mining operations are not feasible, remain a challenge.”[41]


Many NSAGs have used antipersonnel landmines in Myanmar since 1999. In late 2020 and early 2021, there were allegations of new mine use by the Kachin Independence Army (KIA), the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA), and other groups.[42]

Since the military coup in Myanmar in February 2021, several local militias—known as People’s Defence Forces (PDFs)—have formed. Local media have reported the use of landmines by these groups, but it is not possible to determine whether the devices are victim-activated or command-detonated.[43]

Recent allegations of new use were reported in Kachin, Kayin, Mon, and Shan states:

  • In August 2021, a PDF in Pekon township, Shan state, claimed that its use of mines had caused several Tatmadaw casualties.[44]
  • In July 2021:
    • A combined Katha PDF and KIA force claimed that its use of landmines had caused Tatmadaw casualties.[45]
    • A mine reportedly laid by KNLA Battalion 102 killed a local person in Hpapun township, Kayin state.[46]
  • In June 2021, KNLA Battalion 102 removed landmines that they had laid along a road, to allow villagers to travel to market. KNLA forces left the mines at the side of the road.[47]
  • In May 2021, Myanmar government officials alleged that KIA mine use had caused two casualties in Momauk township, Kachin state.[48]

It is often difficult to attribute responsibility for each mine incident in Myanmar to a specific armed group. In northern Shan state, the Tatmadaw are engaged in armed conflict with three members of the Northern Alliance: the Arakan Army (AA), the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (MNDAA), and the Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA). Conflict between NSAGs has also occurred in the area: between the Shan State Army-South (SSA-S), the TNLA, and the Shan State Army–North (SSA-N). Casualties have occurred near to sites of armed conflict involving all these groups, and locals are not sure which groups have laid mines. Examples of such incidents include:

  • In July 2021:
    • A child was injured by a mine in Ponnagyun township, Rakhine state, in an area where the Tatmadaw and the AA had recently clashed.[49]
    • A man was killed by a mine in Kyaukme township, Shan state, where multiple armed groups operate. It was not possible to determine which NSAG laid the mine.[50]
  • In June 2021, in Hpapun township, Kayin state, recently laid mines wounded two local people, but it was unclear which group laid the mines.[51]
  • In May 2021, villagers fleeing armed conflict between the Tatmadaw and the KNLA outside Meh Klaw saw mines laid along the side of the road to Kamarmaung, Kayin state, but it was not known who laid them.[52]


In June 2021, Nigeria stated that with regard to new mine contamination, the “majority of incidents reported are due to improvised anti‐personnel mines (Victim‐Activated IED‐pressure-plate activated).”[53] Boko Haram militants have used landmines, improvised landmines, and other types of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in attacks, primarily in northeastern Nigeria. In December 2020, Mines Advisory Group (MAG) documented past incidents and recoveries of improvised landmines attributed to Boko Haram. It recorded 697 incidents, which produced 1,052 casualties, from improvised landmines or ERW from January 2016 to August 2020 in Borno state and in some areas of Adamawa and Yobe states.[54] Previously, in September 2018, MAG stated that there was evidence of significant new use of mines by Boko Haram and its splinter groups. MAG reported that locally-manufactured antipersonnel mines were used on roads, fields, and in villages, mostly in Borno state, but also in Adamawa and Yobe.[55]

In April 2017, the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) reported the “extensive use of simple pressure-plate activated IEDs on main supply routes, effectively as very large de facto landmines. There are reports of significant use of IEDs around Boko Haram held areas, with the use of multiple IEDs and anti-handling devices.”[56] In June 2017, UNMAS said contamination by improvised mines laid by Boko Haram factions also threatened communities in nearby areas of the Lake Chad Basin.[57] In May 2020, the Nigeria Security Index reported that 99% of the attacks by Boko Haram over a 10-year period used landmines and other explosive devices, but did not differentiate by type.[58]


NSAGs in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa used improvised antipersonnel landmines during the reporting period. Use is attributed to militants often referred to as “miscreants” in local media reports, but is generally accepted to be by constituent groups of Tehrik-i-Taliban in Pakistan (TTP) and Balochi insurgent groups. In October 2020, a spokesperson for the Baloch Liberation Army admitted responsibility for mines laid in the Kohlu district of Balochistan province, which killed one person and left another injured.[59] As in previous years, some civilians were killed or injured in antipersonnel mine incidents, but from available information it was difficult to attribute specific responsibility or the date of placement.[60] Landmine Monitor has recorded numerous antipersonnel mine incidents in past reports in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, though in some cases the precise date of mine use could not be ascertained.

Allegations of landmine use by states

Landmines in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

Azerbaijan accused Armenian forces of laying mines in 2020 and 2021 in Nagorno-Karabakh, and in adjoining areas.[61] It has not been possible to independently verify this claim.[62] At the Mine Ban Treaty’s intersessional meetings in June 2021, Armenia denied using antipersonnel mines in the 2020 conflict and stated that during withdrawal, Armenian forces lacked the time possible to mine areas that subsequently came under Azerbaijan’s control.[63]

However, in May 2021, Armenia’s acting prime minister, Nikol Pashinyan, told a government meeting that Armenian soldiers had emplaced mines along sections of the border to strengthen security and had installed warning signs.[64] Azerbaijan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced on 12 June 2021 that 15 detained Armenians had been handed over to Armenia, in exchange for maps from Armenia showing the location of around 97,000 landmines laid in the Aghdam region, one of seven territories outside Nagorno-Karabakh that Azerbaijan regained control over in 2020.[65] It is unclear if the maps show the location of newly laid minefields, mines planted before 2020, or both.

Other allegations of new landmine use by states

In November 2020, allegations of new use of antipersonnel landmines by North Korean forces surfaced. South Korean state media reported that in a closed-door session of the National Assembly, intelligence officials stated that North Korea had blocked its borders and emplaced landmines along parts of its border with China.[66] These allegations have not been independently verified, though several casualties due to these mines were reported along the border in Ryanggang province.[67]

The Monitor has not documented or confirmed, during the reporting period, any use of antipersonnel mines by Syrian government forces or Russian forces participating in joint military operations in Syria. NSAGs in Syria likely continued to use improvised landmines, as in previous years, but limited access by independent sources to territory under NSAG control made it difficult to confirm new use.

Universalizing the Landmine Ban

Since the Mine Ban Treaty entered into force on 1 March 1999, states wishing to join can no longer sign and ratify the treaty but must instead accede, a process that essentially combines signature and ratification. Of the 164 States Parties, 132 signed and ratified the treaty, while 32 acceded.[68]

No states joined the Mine Ban Treaty during the reporting period. The last states to accede to the treaty were Sri Lanka and the State of Palestine, both in December 2017.

The 33 states not party to the Mine Ban Treaty include the Marshall Islands, which is the last signatory yet to ratify.

Libya’s representative told States Parties in November 2020, “We seize this opportunity to convey to you the declaration by the Chair of the Presidential Council of the National Accord government of Libya is willing to join the Mine Ban Treaty,” adding that “this treaty has extraordinary importance to Libya.”[69]

Other states not party made statements during the reporting period, confirming their long-standing positions on joining the Mine Ban Treaty. These include:

  • Armenia told the president of the Mine Ban Treaty in June 2021 that it values the treaty, but has not signed as the decision is linked to “the security environment in our region” and the “principle of reciprocity.”[70]
  • Azerbaijan provided a detailed statement to the Mine Ban Treaty president in June 2021, elaborating its views on joining and adhering to the treaty.[71] According to the statement, “Azerbaijan endorses the purpose and objectives of the Convention and appreciates the humanitarian spirit reflected therein.” However, it states that Azerbaijan is not a state party “for the obvious reasons arising from our assessment that the military posture of neighbouring Armenia does not allow us to become a full-fledged party to the Convention.”
  • Russia told the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in November 2020 that is it “not advisable for it to adhere” to the treaty, and it has “serious doubts as to the reliability [of the treaty] as it does not have the necessary tools to ensure the compliance of those States that have violated it.” Russia said it “shares the goals of the treaty and supports a world free of mines” but views antipersonnel mines “as an effective way of ensuring the security of Russia’s borders.”[72]
  • Syria told the Mine Ban Treaty’s Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties in November 2020 that it “stresses that achieving global agreement and freeing the world of landmines requires addressing existing concerns and challenges. First and foremost, translating political commitments into financial resources to support the achievement of these goals.”[73]

The administration of President Joe Biden has yet to review the US landmine policy announced on 31 January 2020 under former president Donald Trump, that allows the US to develop, produce, and use landmines as long as they are “non-persistent,” that is, equipped with self-destruct and self-deactivation features.[74] The policy abandons the previous constraint on using antipersonnel mines only on the Korean Peninsula, and instead permits the US to use them anywhere in the world.[75]

Annual UNGA resolution

Since 1997, an annual UNGA resolution has provided states outside the Mine Ban Treaty with an important opportunity to demonstrate their support for the humanitarian rationale of the treaty and the objective of its universalization. More than a dozen countries have acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty after voting in favor of consecutive UNGA resolutions.[76]

On 7 December 2020, UNGA Resolution 75/52, calling for the universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty, was adopted by a vote of 169 in favor, none against, and 17 abstentions.[77] This marked the second year that no state voted against the resolution, and the third consecutive year with 169 votes in favor. It represented a slight decrease in the number of abstentions, down from 18 in 2019. States not party Egypt, India, Iran, Pakistan, Russia, South Korea, and the US made statements explaining their votes.

A core of 14 states not party have abstained from consecutive Mine Ban Treaty resolutions since 1997: Cuba, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Myanmar, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, South Korea, Syria, the US, Uzbekistan,[78] and Vietnam.[79]

Non-state armed groups

Some NSAGs have committed to observe the ban on antipersonnel landmines, which reflects the strength of the growing international norm and stigmatization of these weapons. However, there were no new declarations by NSAGs during 2020 or early 2021.

Since 1997, at least 70 NSAGs have committed to halt using antipersonnel mines.[80] The exact number is difficult to determine, as NSAGs frequently split into factions, go out of existence, or become part of state structures.

Production of Antipersonnel Mines

More than 50 states have produced antipersonnel mines at some point in the past.[81] As many as 40 states have ceased production of antipersonnel mines, including three that are not party to the Mine Ban Treaty: Egypt, Israel, and Nepal.[82]

The Monitor identifies 12 states as producers of antipersonnel mines: China, Cuba, India, Iran, Myanmar, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, the US, and Vietnam. This represents no change from the previous reporting period.

Most of the countries listed as producing antipersonnel landmines are not believed to be actively producing, but have yet to disavow ever doing so.[83] Those most likely to be actively producing mines are India, Iran, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Russia.

Russia debuted new “smart” landmine systems during its annual military exercises in 2021, including mines delivered by rockets and scattered from truck-mounted launchers.[84] It introduced the POM-3 or “Medalyon” antipersonnel mine, a self-destructing bounding fragmentation mine equipped with inherent antihandling/anti-disturbance capability, which had been in development since at least 2015. [85]

The landmine policy announced by the US in January 2020 returned it to the list of countries that either actively produce antipersonnel landmines, or reserve the right to do so.[86]

NSAGs have produced improvised landmines in Afghanistan, Colombia, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Yemen.[87] Antipersonnel mines are prohibited regardless of whether they were assembled in a factory or improvised from locally-available materials.

Transfers of Antipersonnel Mines

A de facto global ban on the transfer of antipersonnel mines has been in effect since the mid-1990s. This ban is attributable to the mine ban movement and the stigma created by the Mine Ban Treaty. Landmine Monitor has never conclusively documented any state-to-state transfers of antipersonnel mines since it began publishing its annual report in 1999.

At least nine states not party to the Mine Ban Treaty have enacted formal moratoriums on the export of antipersonnel mines: China, India, Israel, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, and the US. Other past exporters, including Cuba and Vietnam, have made statements declaring that they have stopped exporting mines. Iran also claims to have stopped exporting in 1997, despite evidence to the contrary.[88]

Stockpiled Antipersonnel Mines

States not party

The Monitor estimates that as many as 30 of the 33 states not party to the Mine Ban Treaty have stockpiled antipersonnel landmines.[89] In 1999, the Monitor estimated that, collectively, states not party stockpiled about 160 million antipersonnel mines, but today the global collective total may be less than 50 million.[90]

Largest stockpiles of antipersonnel mines


Mines stockpiled


26.5 million


6 million (estimated)


4–5 million (estimated)


“less than” 5 million


3 million


approximately 45 million

It is unclear if all of these 30 states not party currently stockpile antipersonnel mines. Officials from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have provided contradictory information regarding its possession of stocks, while Bahrain and Morocco have stated that they possess only small stockpiles which are used solely for training in clearance and detection techniques.

States not party that have stockpiled antipersonnel mines





Korea, North



Korea, South




Saudi Arabia



















States not party to the Mine Ban Treaty routinely destroy stockpiled antipersonnel mines as an element of ammunition management programs and the phasing out of obsolete munitions. In recent years, such stockpile destruction has been reported in China, Israel, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, South Korea, the US, and Vietnam.

Stockpile destruction by States Parties

At least 161 of the 164 States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty do not stockpile antipersonnel mines. This includes 94 states which have officially declared completion of stockpile destruction and 67 states which have declared that they never possessed antipersonnel mines (except in some cases for training in detection and clearance techniques).

Collectively, States Parties have destroyed more than 55 million stockpiled antipersonnel mines under the treaty. Two States Parties destroyed a combined total of 106,569 mines during 2020 (Sri Lanka destroyed 106,113, and Ukraine destroyed 456). States Parties possess a collective total of 3.6 million antipersonnel mines left to destroy: Ukraine (3.3 million) and Greece (343,413).

Sri Lanka announced in October 2021 that it had completed its obligation to destroy its stockpile during the late summer of 2021.[91] Sri Lanka’s remaining stockpile of 11,841 antipersonnel mines was destroyed in Kilinochchi district, Northern province, in advance of its 1 June 2022 deadline.[92]

Greece and Ukraine remain in violation of Article 4 of the Mine Ban Treaty, having both failed to complete destruction of their stockpiles by their respective four-year deadlines.[93] Neither state has indicated when the obligation to destroy their remaining stockpiles will be completed.[94]

Greece did not destroy any stockpiled mines in 2020. It announced in June 2021 that a new contract tender “will be issued in order to appoint a new subcontractor for the demilitarization of the remaining APLMs stockpile.”[95]

Ukraine remains unable to articulate a timeframe for the completion of stockpile destruction. A previous agreement reached by the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense, the Support and Procurement Agency of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the Pavlograd Chemical Plant for the destruction of stockpiles of PFM-type antipersonnel mines was terminated in 2020. The parties are currently in the process of tendering a new agreement.[96] As the President of the Nineteenth Meeting of States Parties noted, “Ukraine further indicated that it is doing its best to intensify the interaction with relevant stakeholders on the matter” and added that “as soon as the tender procedure will be completed, Ukraine will inform on the activities carried out under Article 4.”[97]

Tuvalu must provide an initial Article 7 transparency report for the treaty, to formally confirm that it does not possess stockpiled antipersonnel mines.[98]

Mines retained for training and research

Article 3 of the Mine Ban Treaty allows a State Party to retain or transfer “a number of anti-personnel mines for the development of and training in mine detection, mine clearance, or mine destruction techniques…The amount of such mines shall not exceed the minimum number absolutely necessary for the above-mentioned purposes.”

A total of 63 States Parties retain antipersonnel mines for training and research purposes, of which 30 retain more than 1,000 mines, and three (Sri Lanka, Finland, and Bangladesh) each retain more than 12,000 mines. Another 100 States Parties do not retain any antipersonnel mines, including 41 states that stockpiled or retained mines in the past. Chile joined this latter group of States Parties during the reporting period, decades after initially retaining over 28,000 antipersonnel mines when the treaty entered into force for the country.[99]

States Parties retaining more than 1,000 antipersonnel mines


Last declared total (for year)

Initial declaration

Consumed during 2020

Year of last declared consumption

Total quantity reduced as excess to need

Sri Lanka

16,718 (2020)






15,851 (2020)





12,050 (2016)





6,439 (2020)






5,964 (2020)





5,570 (2020)





4,875 (2011)





4,505 (2019)






4,375 (2019)





3,858 (2020)





3,760 (2020)





3,485 (2020)






3,364 (2011)



None ever


3,134 (2018)






2,996 (2004)





2,454 (2015)





Czech Rep.

2,155 (2020)





2,021 (2020)





2,020 (2020)






2,000 (2020)



None ever


1,841 (2020)





1,780 (2008)





1,764 (2011)





1,730 (2020)






1,705 (2020)






1,634 (2009)





1,540 (2020)





1,304 (2020)





1,121 (2020)






1,020 (2007)









Note: N/R=not reported.

In addition to those listed above, another 33 States Parties each retain fewer than 1,000 mines, and collectively possess a combined total of some 13,900 retained mines.[100] Seven of these states used a combined total of 1,143 retained mines in 2020.[101] Another seven did not report any use.[102] Fourteen States Parties that retain under 1,000 antipersonnel mines have not submitted an annual transparency report for calendar year 2020.[103]

The ICBL has expressed concern at the large number of States Parties that are retaining mines but apparently not using them for the permitted purposes. For these States Parties, the number of mines retained remains the same each year, indicating that none are being consumed (destroyed) during training or research. No other details have been provided about how these mines are being used.

A total of seven States Parties have never reported consuming any mines retained for the permitted purposes since the treaty entered into force for them: Djibouti, Nigeria, and Oman (which each retain more than 1,000 mines); and Burundi, Cape Verde, Senegal, and Togo (which each retain less than 1,000 mines). This list remained unchanged from the previous reporting period.

The Oslo Action Plan calls for any State Party that retains antipersonnel mines under Article 3 to “annually review the number of mines retained to ensure that they do not exceed the minimum number absolutely necessary for permitted purposes” and to “destroy all anti-personnel mines that exceed that number.”[104]

States Parties agreed to Action #49, wherein the president of the Mine Ban Treaty is given a new role to play in ensuring compliance with Article 3. This has been described by some as an “early warning mechanism.” The action point states that “If no information on implementing the relevant obligations [of Articles 3, 4, or 5] for two consecutive years is provided, the President will assist and engage with the States Parties concerned….”[105]

While laudable in terms of transparency, several States Parties still report retaining antipersonnel mines and devices that are fuzeless, inert, rendered free from explosives, or otherwise irrevocably rendered incapable of functioning as an antipersonnel mine, including by the destruction of the fuzes. Technically, these are no longer considered antipersonnel mines as defined by the Mine Ban Treaty. At least 13 States Parties retain antipersonnel mines in this condition.[106]

Transparency Reporting

Article 7 of the Mine Ban Treaty requires that each State Party “report to the Secretary General of the United Nations as soon as practicable, and in any event not later than 180 days after the entry into force of this Convention for that State Party” regarding steps taken to implement the treaty. Thereafter, States Parties are obligated to report annually, by 30 April, on developments during the preceding calendar year.

Tuvalu is the only State Party that has not provided an initial transparency report, after missing its 28 August 2012 deadline.

As of 1 October 2021, 45% of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty had submitted their annual Article 7 reports for calendar year 2020.[107] A total of 91 States Parties have not submitted a report for calendar year 2020, of which most have failed to provide an annual transparency report for two or more years.[108] The submission rate of reports for calendar year 2020 is equal to that of 2019.

Morocco, a state not party, submitted voluntary transparency reports from 2017–2021 (as well as in 2006, 2008–2011, and 2013). In previous years, Azerbaijan (2008–2009), Lao PDR (2011), Mongolia (2007), Palestine (2012–2013), and Sri Lanka (2005) submitted voluntary Article 7 reports.

In 2019, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic submitted a voluntary Article 7 report, covering the period from June 2014 to November 2019, which included information on contamination, clearance, casualties, and victim assistance in Western Sahara.[109]

[1] The Mine Ban Treaty defines an antipersonnel landmine as “a mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons.” Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or booby-traps that are victim-activated fall under this definition, regardless of how they were manufactured. The Monitor frequently uses the term “improvised landmine” to refer to victim-activated IEDs.

[2] NSAGs used mines in at least six countries in both the 2019–2020 and 2018–2019 periods; eight countries in 2017–2018; nine countries in 2016–2017; 10 countries in 2015–2016 and 2014–2015; seven countries in 2013–2014; eight countries in 2012–2013; six countries in 2011–2012; four countries in 2010; six countries in 2009; seven countries in 2008; and nine countries in 2007. During the reporting period, there were also reports of NSAG use of antivehicle mines in Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Iraq, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Ukraine, and Yemen.

[3] The official said, “In border areas, if the number of Tatmadaw is small, they will lay mines around where they reside, but only if their numbers are small. Mines are also laid around infrastructure such as microwave towers. If these are near villages, we warn them. If there is a Tatmadaw camp in an area controlled by an ethnic armed group where they are sniped at and harassed, they will lay mines around the camp.” Monitor meeting with U Min Htike Hein, Assistant Secretary, Union Minister Office for Defence, Ministry of Defence, Naypyidaw, 5 July 2019.

[4] “Pyithu Hluttaw hears answers to questions by relevant ministries,” Global New Light of Myanmar, 13 September 2016, The deputy defence minister stated that the Tatmadaw used mines to protect state-owned factories, bridges, electricity towers, and its outposts in military operations. The deputy defence minister also stated that mines were removed when the military abandoned outposts; or warning signs were placed, to mark where mines were emplaced if soldiers were not present.

[5] “Myanmar Junta Accused of Targeting Civilians with Landmines,” The Irrawaddy, 29 September 2021,

[6] “A staff who came to fix Mytel phone tower at Muse Township lost his feet after stepping on a landmine,” Eleven Myanmar, 25 September 2021, See also, “Security forces today laid mines by a Mytel tower in Mogok, Mandalay Region, according to local residents who had been ordered by the military troops involved to evacuate their homes,” Democratic Voice of Burma, 15 September 2021,

[7] “In Kyauktaw, a villager stepped on a landmine and lost one of his legs,” Myanmar Now, 18 August 2021,

[8] “A teenager was killed when he stepped on a landmine planted by the military council,” Burma News International/Kachin News Group, 9 August 2021,

[9] “Two people were killed when a landmine exploded on Kyee Ngo Mountain,” Civil Disobedience Movement Myanmar, 30 July 2021,

[10] UN Special Rapporteur Tom Andrews (RapporteurUn), ‘‘Mass deaths from starvation, disease and exposure could occur in Kayah State after many of the 100,000 forced to flee into forests from junta bombs are now cut off from food, water and medicine by the junta. The international community must act. My full statement below.’’ 8 June 2021, 11:41 UTC. Tweet, See, press release attached to tweet: “UN Special Rapporteur Calls for Immediate Action to Avoid Massive Loss of Life in Kayah State, Myanmar.’’

[11] “Children Orphaned, Civilians Dead from Landmines, and Villager Shot by Burma Army in Karen State,” Free Burma Rangers, 13 June 2021,

[12] “Burma Army Plants Landmines Around Kachin State Town,” Kachin News Group, 15 June 2021,

[13] “Chin Teenager Killed by Myanmar Junta Landmine,” The Irrawaddy, 25 June 2021,

[14] Chin World Media (media_chin), ‘‘Chinland Defence Force (Hakha) issued statement urging the military council to take responsibility for the death of Pu Tler Ling, 60, and claiming soldiers planted landmines around the Hakha town. #WhatsHappeningInMyanmar.’’ 12 May 2021, 13:26 UTC. Tweet, See, press release attached to tweet.

[15] “New clashes break out between KIA, regime forces in northern Shan State,” Myanmar Now, 18 May 2021,

[16] Information provided to the Monitor on 24 June 2021. Battalions 706, 707, and 708, and Mobile Operations Command 4 moved supplies through the area and laid mines on 28 May 2021. Over the next two weeks, Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) forces found and removed MM6-type mines.

[17] Information provided confidentially to the Monitor on 11 May 2021. On 4 May, Mobile Operations Command 8 and Infantry Battalion 19 laid landmines around Bo Hta village in Mae Klaw village tract, which prohibited access to a path used by villagers to reach their paddy field.

[18] Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG), “Karen Human Rights Group Submission to Landmine Monitor,” August 2021. During the night on 13 April 2021, personnel from Tatmadaw Light Infantry Battalion 434, based at Hpapun, marched to Boh Hta and planted landmines, leading to the death of livestock.

[19] KHRG, “Karen Human Rights Group Submission to Landmine Monitor,” August 2021. The Tatmadaw planted mines in Me Waing, on a road used to reach farming and hill fields, resulting in a man losing his leg to a mine.

[20] KHRG, “Karen Human Rights Group Submission to Landmine Monitor,” August 2021. KHRG researchers were informed by a Thai villager hired by Light Infantry Battalion 434, who warned him about mines they had planted.

[21] Statement of Myanmar, General Debate, First Committee, 75th Session, UN General Assembly (UNGA), 19 October 2020. At the Fourth Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in November 2019, which was attended by delegations from both Myanmar and Bangladesh, Myanmar’s representative neither confirmed nor denied mine use. Rather, they stated: “Building lasting peace is the most fundamental and important task in the process of stopping future use of anti-personnel mines.” Statement of Myanmar, Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Review Conference, Segment on Universalization, Oslo, 26 November 2019, Bangladesh reiterated its “deep concern” over Myanmar’s continued mine use and said that its “border management authorities recorded anti-personnel mine related accidents within Myanmar territory along our borders even as recently as in September and November 2019, leading to several civilian fatalities and injuries.” Statement of Bangladesh, Mine Ban Treaty Fourth Review Conference, Oslo, 27 November 2019,

[22] Statement of Bangladesh, General Debate, First Committee, 75th Session, UNGA, 14 October 2020.

[23] Casualties attributed to Boko Haram were recorded by the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) database of conflict casualties. See, Clionadh Raleigh, Andrew Linke, Håvard Hegre, and Joakim Karlsen, “Introducing ACLED-Armed Conflict Location and Event Data,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 47, Issue 5, 28 September 2010, pp. 651–660,

[24] See, “Egyptians return to Sinai homes to find Islamic State booby traps,” Middle East Eye, 24 October 2020,

[25] In July 2021, near the Niger border with Nigeria and Chad, a civilian was injured by a victim-activated device which was placed by either Boko Haram or Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP). In April 2021, near the Niger border with Burkina Faso, one civilian was killed and another injured by a victim-activated device allegedly laid by Jama'a Nusrat ul-Islam wa al-Muslimin (JNIM). Both incidents were recorded in the ACLED database.

[26] Sporadic use of improvised antipersonnel mines has occurred in the Philippines over past years. In December 2020, the Armed Forces of the Philippines displayed evidence of improvised antipersonnel landmines found in Barangay Itaw, in South Upi municipality, Maguindanao province, attributed to the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF). The device was manufactured from recycled unexploded ordnance (UXO). Armed Forces of the Philippines, 57th Infantry Masikap Battalion Facebook page, 12 December 2020, See also, Jeoffrey Maitem and Julie Alipala “2 soldiers, 2 militias injured as landmine planted by local IS forces blasted in Maguindanao,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, 24 October 2020,

[27] On 9 August 2021, a Territorial Defense Volunteer lost a leg after stepping on a landmine at his rubber plantation, and his wife suffered facial injuries, in Su-Ngai Padi district, Narwathiwat province. “Defense Volunteer has leg blown off after stepping on landmine in his rubber plantation - wife injured,” ASEAN Now, 10 August 2021, On 9 October 2020, a Thai ranger was killed after stepping on a landmine while pursuing insurgents in Sai Buri district, Pattani province. “One ranger killed and two injured by suspected insurgents in Pattani province,” Thai PBS World, 9 October 2020,

[28] Lilia Blaise, Hamdi Tlili, and Fadil Aliriza,“Tunisia's forgotten victims of jihadist landmines,” France 24, 27 May 2021,; “Landmine blast injures teenage girl in Tunisia,” The North Africa Post, 16 February 2021,; “Tunisia: Landmines claim more lives in Kasserine, two children killed in blast,” The North Africa Journal, 11 March 2021,; and “Tunisia: Citizen Dies in Landmine Blast in Mount Semmama, Kasserine,” Tunis Afrique Presse, 16 June 2021,

[29] Statement of Venezuela, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, 24 June 2021,; “Venezuela to request UN aid to clear mines from Colombia border,” France 24, 5 April 2021,; “Venezuelan senior officers confirm use of landmines by Colombia,” Prensa Latina, 9 April 2021,; and Eunice Janssen, “Venezuela’s landmines status,” 21 April 2021,

[30] Statement of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, Thematic Session: Completion and Sustainable National Capacities, 23 June 2021,

[31] Afghanistan stated that new use of improvised mines and other explosive remnants of war (ERW) was responsible for killing 1,451 civilians between June 2019 and May 2020. Presentation of Afghanistan, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, 1 July 2020,

[32] UNAMA, “Afghanistan: Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict: Annual Report 2020,” February 2021, p. 48, Previously, in 2019, UNAMA attributed 96% of the use of pressure-plate improvised mines to the Taliban, causing 650 civilian casualties (275 killed and 375 injured). See, UNAMA, “Afghanistan: Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict: Annual Report 2019,” February 2020, p. 42,

[33] Colombia Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), pp. 46–48. See, Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database, The bodies of the improvised antipersonnel landmines are primarily non-metallic, using both commercial high explosives as well as improvised explosives from agricultural chemicals, and are activated by either electronic or chemical detonators. The Article 7 report notes that most are activated by pressure, but some by tension wires.

[34] Updated information according to OACP, sourced from the Colombian Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights database of events by MAP/MUSE, Provided to the Monitor by the Colombian Campaign Against Mines (Campaña Colombiana contra Minas, CCCM).

[35] See, for example, February 2021, in Vista Hermosa municipality of Meta Department, the National Army seized 254 improvised antipersonnel landmines reportedly manufactured by a dissident FARC faction. “Tropas del Ejército ocuparon taller en el que fabricaban artefactos explosivos en el Meta” (‘‘Army troops occupied a workshop that manufactured explosive devices in Meta’’), Infoebae, 24 February 2021, Also, In December 2020, in the municipality of Calamar of Guaviare Department, the National Army seized 570 improvised antipersonnel landmines reportedly stored by a dissident FARC faction. “En sumergible incautan arsenal de 'Iván Mordisco', jefe de disidencias” (‘‘In a submersible they seize arsenal of 'Iván Mordisco', head of dissidents’’), El Tiempo, 2 December 2020, In June 2021, in San Fracisco municipality of Antioquia Department, the National Army seized 470 improvised antipersonnel landmines and 60 directional mines from a cache reportedly belonging to the ELN. “Ejército halló caleta del ELN con cerca de 500 minas antipersonal en San Francisco, Antioquia” (‘‘Army found ELN cove with about 500 antipersonnel mines in San Francisco, Antioquia’’), Blu Radio, 29 June 2021, In January 2021, in Calamar municipality of Guaviare Department, the National Army seized 40 improvised antipersonnel landmines from a cache reported as belonging to a ‘residual armed group’. Comando General de las Fuerzas Militares de Colombia (CGFM) press release, “Tropas del Ejército en Calamar, Guaviare, hallan un depósito ilegal con minas antipersonal” (‘‘Army troops in Calamar, Guaviare, find an illegal deposit with antipersonnel mines’’), 8 January 2021, In November 2020, the National Army seized 20 improvised antipersonnel landmines in a cache containing other weapons in the Catatumbo region bordering Venuzuela in Norte de Santander Department. CGFM press release, “Más de 2.700 municiones fueron halladas en un depósito ilegal del GAO Los Pelusos” (‘‘More than 2,700 ammunition was found in an illegal deposit of the GAO Los Pelusos’’), 19 November 2020, In June 2020, the National Army found a cache containing 29 improvised antipersonnel mines and other material of an unknown group in Lejanías municipality of Meta Department. CGFM press release, “Ejército encuentra depósito ilegal perteneciente al GAO residual Estructura 40” (‘‘Army finds illegal deposit belonging to residual GAO Structure 40’’), 1 June 2020,

[36] While collecting leaves in the forest, one woman was killed and four were injured after stepping on a mine said by officials to have been laid by the PLGA on the border of Latehar and Gumla districts, in Jharkhand State. Injuries from pressure-plate mines had previously been reported in the area. “Woman Killed, 3 Injured in Landmine Blast by Maoists at Jharkhand Forest,” News 18, 16 January 2021, Later in the month, also in Jharkhand State, a young man was injured while tending cattle in the forest. Vishvendu Jaipuriar, “Chatra youth loses leg in landmine blast in Chatra,” Telegraph India, 21 January 2021, In March 2021, in Chhattisgarh, an officer of the special state armed forces was killed after stepping on a pressure-plate mine. “Chhattisgarh Armed Force Jawan Killed In Blast Triggered By Maoists,” NDTV, 4 March 2021,

[37] Mukesh Ranjan, “Villager guiding cops killed after IED planted by Maoists explodes in Jharkhand’s Gumla,” The New Indian Express, 14 July 2021, It is not known if this was voluntary or forced labour. The article states that there were other similar casualties.

[38] Srinivasa Rao Apparasu, “Maoist landmine kills two tribals in forest area of Visakhapatnam,” Hindustan Times, 3 August 2020,

[39] Siva G, “Andhra Pradesh: Maoists offer apologies for landmine blast,” The Times of India, 11 August 2020,

[40] “CRPF jawan injured in land mine blast in Lohardaga,” United News of India, 25 December 2019,; and “One killed, five injured in landmine blast in Jharkhand,” Asian News International, 24 December 2019,

[41] Tikeshwar Patel, “IEDs pose huge challenge in efforts to counter Naxals: police,” Press Trust of India, 24 July 2017,

[42] There are also allegations of use by the Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA), the Shan State Progress Party/Shan State Army-North (SSPP/SSA-N), and the Restoration Council of Shan State/Shan State Army-South (RCSS/SSA-S) in their operations against the Tatmadaw during the reporting period.

[43] For example, the Taze People’s Comrades in Taze township, Sagaing region, claimed that military vehicles triggered landmines that they had laid near Doukgyi village. “More Than 40 Junta Troops Killed Across Myanmar,” The Irrawaddy, 16 August 2021, The Southern Pauk Guerrilla Force in Pauk township, Magway region, reportedly killed several Tatmadaw soldiers, and when reinforcements came to retrieve the bodies, more of its mines exploded, killing 17 more soldiers. “Armed resistance replaces anti-coup protests in Pauk township,” Frontier Myanmar, 31 August 2021,

[44] “Myanmar Resistance Landmines Kill Junta Troops After Attack on Power Line,” The Irrawaddy, 18 August 2021,

[45] “People’s Defence Force in Sagaing says it killed 180 junta troops with help of Kachin Independence Army,” Myanmar Now, 12 July 2021,

[46] KHRG, “Karen Human Rights Group Submission to Landmine Monitor,” August 2021. KHRG researchers were told that no warning by the KNLA had been issued. Nearby, another mine caused minor injuries to two other people the same day.

[47] KHRG, “Karen Human Rights Group Submission to Landmine Monitor,” August 2021. KHRG researchers were told that on 19 June 2021, KNLA Battalion 102 removed some mines so that local villagers could visit Hpapun town to buy goods. They left some landmines beside the road, leaving villagers afraid to go back to their own villages.

[48] “New clashes break out between KIA, regime forces in northern Shan State,” Myanmar Now, 18 May 2021,

[49] “Teenage boy steps on landmine, loses leg in Ponnagyun Township,” Myanmar Now, 22 July 2021,

[50] Nang Seng Nom, “Farmer Killed from Landmine Explosion,” Shan Herald Agency for News, 30 July 2021,

[51] KHRG, “Karen Human Rights Group Submission to Landmine Monitor,” August 2021. KHRG researchers were told that it was an improvised mine. In the second incident, a “local armed group” had warned villagers not to go to the area. In the July incident, local authorities had given a warning which had been forgotten by the villager who was injured.

[52] KHRG, “Karen Human Rights Group Submission to Landmine Monitor,” August 2021. On 3 May 2021, villagers from Nah Koo Nah village, Meh Klaw village tract, fled due to skirmishes between the KNLA and the Tatmadaw occurring close to the village. In all, 70–80 villagers (12 households) fled to Kamarmaung town, during which they noticed landmines laid along the road leading to Kamarmaung.

[53] Presentation of Nigeria, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, 23 June 2021,

[54] MAG, “Hidden Scars: The Landmine Crisis in north-east Nigeria,” December 2020,; and MAG, “Nigeria: 2016 – June 30th 2019 Explosive Ordnance Incident Map – Accessible/Inaccessible Areas in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe as of August 2019,” 22 August 2019.

[55] MAG, “Out of Sight: Landmines and the Crisis in Northeast Nigeria,” 30 September 2018, p. 4, MAG states that their research revealed that almost 90% of the victims of explosive incidents were from antipersonnel landmines, with a casualty rate of almost 19 per day during 2017 and early 2018.

[56] Bruno Bouchardy, Field Coordinator, UNMAS Mali, and Michael Hands, Mine Action Officer, UN Office to the African Union, “Mission Report: UNMAS Explosive Threat Scoping Mission to Nigeria 3 to 14 April 2017,” April 2017, p. 3.

[57] Statement of UNMAS, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, Geneva, 8 June 2017,

[58] Abdulazeez Abdullah, “Nigeria Security Index: Boko Haram Rely Largely On Explosives, Landmines and IED for Attacks, Data Shows,” Dataphyte, 22 May 2020,

[59] “Balochistan: pro-Pakistan army man killed in landmine blast in Kahan,” Balochwarna News, 24 October 2020,

[60] Muhammad Irfan, “Woman Dies, Two Injured In Landmine Blast,” Urdu Point, 7 February 2021,

[61] Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ‘‘No:121/21, Statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the 4th of April - International Mine Awareness Day,’’ 4 April 2021,

[62] It is also not possible at this time to distinguish the actions of Armenian-supported separatist forces in Nagorno-Karabakh and the Armed Forces of Armenia, or whether this seemingly joint force used landmines.

[63] Statement of Armenia, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, 21 June 2021,

[64] “Armenian military carried out mining work with the installation of warning signs, the purpose of sabotage was not – Pashinyan,” Novosti NK, 27 May 2021,

[65] Joshua Kucera, “Armenia and Azerbaijan exchange detainees for mine maps,” Eurasianet, 12 June 2021,

[66] “N. Korea lays landmines in border areas to fend off coronavirus: NIS,” Yonhap News Agency, 3 November 2020,

[67] “Soldiers Injured as North Korea Deploys Landmines at Sino-Korean Border to Stop Escapees,” Radio Free Asia, 27 October 2020,

[68] The 32 accessions include two countries that joined the Mine Ban Treaty through the process of “succession.” These two countries are Montenegro (after the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro) and South Sudan (after it became independent from Sudan). Of the 132 signatories, 44 ratified on or before entry into force (1 March 1999) and 88 ratified afterward.

[69] Statement of Libya, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties, held virtually, 19 November 2020, The statement also noted that military talks in Libya, held under the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), had concluded mine clearance agreements, and that success in the talks would create conditions for joining the Mine Ban Treaty.

[70] Statement of Armenia, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, 21 June 2021,

[71] Statement of Azerbaijan, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, 22 June 2021,

[72] Russian Federation, Explanation of Vote on Resolution L.26, 75th Session, UNGA First Committee, New York, 6 November 2020,

[73] Statement of Syria, Mine Ban Treaty Eighteenth Meeting of States Parties, held virtually, 16 November 2020, p. 3,

[74] The policy makes no distinction between antipersonnel and antivehicle mines, but the White House spokesperson stated that antipersonnel mines are the focus of the new US policy. The decision was outlined in a three-page policy contained in a letter signed by Secretary of Defense Mark Esper on 31 January 2020. US Department of Defense, “Memorandum: DoD Policy on Landmines,” 31 January 2020,

[75] Previous US president Barack Obama issued a new landmine policy in 2014 banning production and acquisition of antipersonnel mines as well as halting their use by the US anywhere except the Korean Peninsula. The Obama administration brought US policy further in line with the Mine Ban Treaty, but did not take any measures towards US accession. Under the 2014 policy, the US committed not to use antipersonnel landmines outside of the Korean Peninsula and not to assist, encourage, or induce other nations to use, stockpile, produce, or transfer antipersonnel mines outside of the peninsula. It also committed to no future US production or acquisition of antipersonnel mines.

[76] This includes Belarus, Bhutan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Finland, Nigeria, North Macedonia, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Turkey.

[77] The 17 states that abstained were: Cuba, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Palau, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Syria, the US, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe.

[78] Uzbekistan voted in favor of the UNGA resolution on the Mine Ban Treaty in 1997 and did not vote on the resolution in 2018 and 2020.

[79] Of these states: India, Israel, Pakistan, Russia, South Korea, and the US are party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) Amended Protocol II on landmines; Cuba and Uzbekistan are party to CCW Protocol II; and Egypt and Vietnam have signed the CCW but are not party to any of its protocols. Iran, Myanmar, North Korea, and Syria remain outside of any treaty-based prohibition or regulation of antipersonnel mines.

[80] As of October 2021, 48 NSAGs have committed not to use mines through the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment: 20 by self-declaration, four by the Rebel Declaration (two have signed both the Rebel Declaration and the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment), and two through a peace accord (in Colombia and Nepal). See, Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, “Briefing Paper: Landmine Use by Non-State Armed Groups: A 20-Year Review,” November 2019,

[81] There are 51 confirmed current and past producers. Not included within that list are five States Parties that some sources have cited as past producers, but who deny it: Croatia, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Thailand, and Venezuela. It is also unclear if Syria has produced antipersonnel mines.

[82] Additionally, Taiwan passed legislation banning production in June 2006. The 36 States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty that once produced antipersonnel mines are: Albania, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Uganda, the United Kingdom (UK), and Zimbabwe.

[83] For example, Singapore’s only known producer of antipersonnel landmines, Singapore Technologies Engineering, a government-linked corporation, said in November 2015 that it “is now no longer in the business of designing, producing and selling of anti-personnel mines.” PAX, “Singapore Technologies Engineering stops production of cluster munitions,” 19 November 2015,

[84] “Fire and ‘Tick’: Russia tested a new system of minefields,” Izvestia, 6 September 2021,

[85] In 2015, the POM-3 mine’s design engineers claimed the seismically-activated POM-3 would be able to distinguish between combatants and civilians as it is activated by a sensor that detects the footfall of an individual, characterizes it against known signatures, and fires its warhead into the air. Igor Smirnov and Mikhail Zhukov, Directors of the Scientific Research Institute of the Engineering Department of Munitions, Mining, and Demining, interviewed on Zvezda TV, 20 November 2015, cited in “Russia Develops Landmine With ‘Electronic Brain’,”, 20 November 2015, See also, “Perspective Anti-Personnel Mine POM-3 ‘Medallion’,” Military Review, 30 November 2015,

[86] The 2020 US policy rolls back the 2014 policy pledge to “not produce or otherwise acquire any anti-personnel munitions that are not compliant with the Ottawa Convention in the future, including to replace such munitions as they expire in the coming years.”

[87] Previous lists of NSAGs producing antipersonnel mines have included Iraq, Syria, Thailand, and Tunisia.

[88] Landmine Monitor received information in 2002–2004 that demining organizations in Afghanistan were clearing and destroying many hundreds of Iranian YM-I and YM-I-B antipersonnel mines, date-stamped 1999 and 2000, from abandoned Northern Alliance frontlines. Information provided to Landmine Monitor and the ICBL by HALO Trust, Danish Demining Group (DDG), and other demining groups in Afghanistan. Iranian antipersonnel and antivehicle mines were also part of a shipment seized by Israel in January 2002 off the coast of the Gaza Strip.

[89] Three states not party, all in the Asia-Pacific, have said that they do not stockpile antipersonnel mines: signatory the Marshall Islands, in addition to non-signatories Micronesia and Tonga.

[90] In 2014, China informed Landmine Monitor that its stockpile was “less than” five million, but there is a degree of uncertainty about the method China used to derive this figure. For example, it is not known whether antipersonnel mines contained in remotely-delivered systems, so-called “scatterable” mines, are counted individually or as just the container, which can hold numerous individual mines. Previously, China was estimated to have 110 million antipersonnel mines in its stockpile.

[91] In its initial Article 7 report, submitted on 28 November 2018, Sri Lanka declared a stockpile of 77,865 antipersonnel mines. See also, Sri Lanka Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2020), Section 3, Table 2. Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Database,

[92] Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC) Implementation Support Unit press release, “Nearly 12,000 landmines destroyed by Sri Lanka under the Mine Ban Convention,” 1 October 2021,

[93] Greece had a deadline for stockpile destruction of 1 March 2008, while Ukraine had a deadline of 1 June 2010.

[94] The Oslo Action Plan adopted at the Mine Ban Treaty’s Fourth Review Conference in 2019 urges states that have failed to meet their stockpile destruction deadlines to “present a time-bound plan for completion and urgently proceed with implementation as soon as possible in a transparent manner.” Oslo Action Plan, 29 November 2019,

[95] Statement of Greece, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, June 2021,

[96] Statement of Ukraine, Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings, held virtually, 22 June 2021.

[97] Observations by the president of the Mine Ban Treaty Nineteenth Meeting of the States Parties, “Preliminary observations on the status of implementation of Article 4 (stockpile destruction) of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention,” 15 June 2021,

[98] Tuvalu has not made an official declaration, but is not thought to possess antipersonnel mines.

[99] Botswana, Brazil, and Uruguay all reported in 2020 that they destroyed their remaining retained mines (1,002, 364, and 260 respectively) during calendar year 2019. In 2018, Argentina, Cambodia, and Ethiopia destroyed the entirety of their stockpiles retained for training and research, and the UK announced that its stockpile was comprised of inert munitions that do not fall under the scope of the treaty. Tuvalu has not submitted an initial Article 7 report, which was originally due in 2012.

[100] States Parties retaining under 1,000 mines for research and training: Cambodia (953), Zambia (907), Mali (900), Mozambique (900), Slovakia (874), BiH (834), Honduras (826), Mauritania (728), Japan (719), South Africa (576), Italy (563), Sudan (528), Germany (465), Zimbabwe (450), Togo (436), Cyprus (435), Nicaragua (435), Portugal (383), Republic of the Congo (322), Cote d’Ivoire (290), Netherlands (270), Slovenia (249), Bhutan (211), Cape Verde (120), Eritrea (101), The Gambia (100), Jordan (100), Ecuador (90), Rwanda (65), Senegal (50), Benin (30), Guinea-Bissau (9), and Burundi (4).

[101] States Parties which retained under 1,000 mines and reported use of retained mines in calendar year 2020: Netherlands (587), Sudan (201), Germany (118), Japan (84), Cyprus (65), Italy (54), and Slovenia (23).

[102] States Parties which retained under 1,000 mines but did not report using any in calendar year 2020: BiH, Burundi, Ecuador, Jordan, Portugal, Senegal, and Zimbabwe.

[103] States Parties retaining less than 1,000 mines but did not submit an annual Article 7 transparency report for calendar year 2020: Benin, Bhutan, Cape Verde, Republic of the Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Eritrea, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Mali, Rwanda, South Africa, Togo, and Zambia.

[104] Oslo Action Plan, Action #16, 29 November 2019,

[105] Ibid., Action #49.

[106] States Parties retaining antipersonnel mines and devices that are fuzeless, inert, rendered free from explosives, or otherwise irrevocably rendered incapable of functioning as an antipersonnel mine: Afghanistan, Australia, BiH, Canada, Eritrea, France, The Gambia, Germany, Lithuania, Mozambique, Senegal, Serbia, and the UK.

[107] The 73 States Parties that submitted a transparency report for calendar year 2020 (as of 1 October 2021): Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, BiH, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Canada, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Holy See, Hungary, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mauritania, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Oman, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, Yemen, and Zimbabwe.

[108] The 91 States Parties hat have not submitted Article 7 reports for calendar year 2020 (as of 1 October 2021); those that have not submitted reports for two or more years are noted in italics: Albania, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, DRC, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Dominica, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Eswatini, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Lesotho, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Namibia, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Macedonia, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Suriname, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Zambia.

[109] The sovereignty of Western Sahara remains the subject of a dispute between Morocco and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguía el Hamra and Río de Oro (Polisario). Polisario’s Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is a member of the African Union (AU), but is not universally recognized. It has no official representation in the United Nations (UN), which prevents formal accession to the Mine Ban Treaty.