Victim Assistance

Last updated: 04 December 2017

Action points based on findings

  • Devote resources to reach survivors where they live, as survivors in remote and rural areas continue to face obstacles to access adequate assistance.
  • Standardize management systems and improve sustainability and accessibility of the physical rehabilitation sector.
  • Increase economic opportunities for survivors and persons with disabilities and develop education and training opportunities that are appropriate for survivors and other persons with disabilities and many survivors who lack education and literacy and have no work or land from which to make a living.
  • Improve the physical accessibility of living and working environments.
  • Provide quality psychological support services.

Victim assistance commitments

The Kingdom of Cambodia is responsible for significant numbers of landmine survivors, cluster munition victims, and survivors of other explosive remnants of war (ERW) who are in need. Cambodia has made commitments to provide victim assistance through the Mine Ban Treaty.

Cambodia ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 20 December 2012.

Victim Assistance

The total number of survivors in Cambodia is not known. At least 44,856 people have been reported to have been injured by mines/ERW.[1]

Victim assistance since 2015

In 2014, the Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA) made an assessment of progress in implementing victim assistance under the Mine Ban Treaty Cartagena Action Plan 2010–2014. At the Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference in June 2014, Cambodia stated that it had faced many challenges in providing victim assistance under the action plan, including limited financial support and limited human and technical resources for the implementation of both international and national obligations for persons with disabilities, including mine survivors.[2] The CMAA also carried out an impact assessment of the living conditions of deminer survivors injured during clearance in 2014.

The CMAA had its legally-mandated responsibility for the coordination of victim assistance delegated to the Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation (MoSVY) and its support mechanism, the Disability Action Council (DAC). However, the CMAA maintains oversight of victim assistance activities and implementation, including survey and reporting. The MOSVY/DAC has oversight of broader disability issues, with little indication reported of how victim assistance for mine/ERW survivors has been included in overall disability programing and implementation.

Physical rehabilitation services have been available throughout the country from both government agencies and NGOs. Within the MoSVY, the Persons with Disabilities Foundation (PWDF) was created by sub-decree in 2011 as a public institution responsible for the management of physical rehabilitation centers under the supervision of the MoSVY and the Ministry of Economy and Finance. However, since the handover of the physical rehabilitation centers to the MoSVY started, there has been a reduction in available services and in some cases, persons with disabilities or NGOs assisting them are being asked to pay for assistive devices. Services for people with physical disabilities offered through the physical rehabilitation centers were inadequate to meet demand. Furthermore, financing mechanisms for rehabilitation services, including funding pathways, were unclear. A lack of a standardized information system for the rehabilitation sector in Cambodia makes it difficult to monitor the total numbers of people receiving services.[3] The MoSVY implemented the Patient Management System as a common rehabilitation center management tool, with the financial and technical support of the ICRC.[4] However this was not universally adopted by service providers.

A national workshop to review the implementation of National Disability Strategic Plan (NDSP) was heldin December 2015, and later another in August 2017. Government agencies, NGOs, and private sector actors shared their progress in implementation of the plan, the Law on the Protection and the Promotion of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and the CRPD. It was also apparent that some ministries were not aware of, or did not yet understand well, disability-related legislation, policies, and guidelines and that more awareness-raising was needed.[5]

Assessing victim assistance needs

Throughout 2016, the Jesuit Refugee Services(JRS)/Cambodia Campaign to Ban Landmines (CCBL) and the CMAA continued to undertake the “Survey on the Quality of Life for Landmine/ERW survivors” (Quality of Life Survey, QLS), which was begun in 2013. QLS survey teams organized home visits to understand the situation of respondents and provided peer counseling, raised awareness on the rights and needs of persons with disabilities including survivors, and engaged local authorities and service providers to support and promote the rights and dignity of landmine/ERW survivors. Information and recommendations from the QLS were shared for the development of the NDSP.

The JRS/CCBL Survivor Network Team continued to implement Quality of Life measures and work to uphold rights of survivors and persons with disabilities in remote areas through 1,004 peer counselling visits (to the same number of people), the building of houses (14), and toilets (27), providing wheelchairs (34), income generation grants (18), and emergency food packs for the most vulnerable (56), as well as scholarships for children with disabilities (15).[6]

In 2016, the CMAA QLS teams visited some 50 additional villages, reaching 860 more persons with disabilities. Overall the CMAA survey reached 850 villages, 163 communes, 54 districts in 25 provinces, and 7,860 persons with disabilities (2,362 of which were women), including 1,815 landmine/ERW survivors (133 women) through direct interview.[7]

The CMVIS provided ongoing systematic data collection of mine/ERW casualties, including numbers of survivors and referrals to services.[8]

A working group for monitoring data on services received by mine/ERW victims was established in May 2015. It is led by the CMAA, and members also included the MoSAVY, the DAC, and physical rehabilitation centers.[9]

Victim assistance coordination

Government coordinating body/focal point

CMAA, the MoSVY, PWDF, and the DAC

Coordinating mechanism



National Disability Strategic Plan 2014–2018


Cambodia reports that the government delegated the responsibility for victim assistance to the MoSVY/PWDF, “where it is most appropriately addressed.”[10] The DAC Secretariat supports the MoSVY in the area of general disabilities. The CMAA Department of Victim Assistance conducts the QLS as implemented by CMAA volunteer survivor networks across the country. The CMAA works with the MoSVY, People with Disability Foundation, and DAC in order to obtain information on services provided to landmine/ERW victims. These organizations work according to the National Disability Strategy Plan 2014–2018 (NDSP).[11] However, the CMAA does not have a specific mandated role within the strategy, an omission for integrating victim assistance into disability rights frameworks that could be addressed in subsequent strategic planning.

The DAC, established in 2009, is a governmental agency attached to the MoSVY that provides it with technical, coordination, and advisory services. The Persons with Disabilities Foundation, an institution created under the MoSVY, has a mandate to provide rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities, manage the rehabilitation centers, provide funds for implementing various projects, such as support for education and vocational training, manage job placement services, and prepare policies for assisting and supporting persons with disabilities.[12]

At a more local level, relevant actors include a wide range of the Provincial and District Offices’ of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation (PoSVY/DoSVY) and of PWDF; provincial, district, and commune bodies; and village chiefs. In some specific areas, there are Commune Disability Committees, supported by NGOs.[13]

The NDSP 2014–2018 was developed by the DAC in cooperation with the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), the Asia and Pacific Centre for Development (APCD), the Australian Agency for International Development/the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in Cambodia, and other national and international organizations.[14] The plan contains four goals and 10 key objectives, all of which are relevant to addressing the rights and needs of survivors.[15] The NDSP itself notes that it represents a continuation of the implementation of the National Plan of Action for Persons with Disabilities, including Landmine and ERW Survivors 2009–2011, which had remained in place by extension through 2013.[16]

The DAC is responsible for monitoring and reporting on the progress of implementation of the NDSP to government as well as proposing revisions to the plan in order to respond to the needs of persons with disabilities according to the resources available.[17]

The NDSP is the basis of enforcement of Cambodia’s core legal commitments to disability rights: the Law on the Protection and the Promotion of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; the CRPD; and the Decade of Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific 2013–2022, Incheon Strategy: Make the Right Real.[18] Disability advocates expressed concern that, if the new strategic disability plan lacked a corresponding state-allocated budget and was based on limited existing human resources, its goals could not be adequately implemented.[19]

The mid-term progress report in 2015 reported that no institutional and financial arrangements had been made for the implementation of the NDSP. Furthermore, the relevant ministries and agencies had no developed prioritized action plans, and such inaction “might eventually result in NDSP remaining as an aspirational document with no concrete action to improve the quality of life for persons with disabilities.”[20]

Cambodia has a relatively complex governmental structure for implementing the rights of persons with disabilities. In addition to the MoSVY, DAC, and NDCC, the DAC Secretariat, the Department of Welfare of Persons, and the Persons with Disabilities Foundation have specific roles and there were also many committees, sub-committees, and working groups. Due to overlapping functions of the various institutions, in practice accountability was often ambiguous. Most did not meet regularly and their effectiveness was reported to be “questionable.”[21] The joint project document for the UNDP Disability Rights Initiative Cambodia 2014, listed the following key challenges facing the government’s implementation of the CRPD overall:[22]

  • The lack of clear division of roles and responsibilities for the multiple government units with disability responsibilities;
  • Low levels of knowledge and experience within these government units;
  • Limited commitment to ensure the meaningful participation of disabled people’s organizations (DPOs) and civil society organizations;
  • Challenges facing the MoSVY in facilitating coordination with other ministries;
  • Relatively low levels of government funding for government units with disability responsibilities; and
  • A lack of reliable data on disability.[23]

The NDSP contains many goals and objectives relevant to mine/ERW survivors, including implementing the national disability strategy for 2014–2018, “including people with disabilities by mines” as well as implementing the national policy on disability through the Disability Action Council; strengthening the implementation of the Law on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; promoting enhancement of rights and welfare of the disabled according to the CRPD; improving the quality and efficiency of the disability fund; enhancing welfare for persons with disabilities; supporting poor people with disabilities with availability of funds; continuing implementation of community-based services; and providing employment opportunities.[24]

The MoSVY has core responsibility for disability issues and rehabilitation services. Several other ministries were involved in disability issues, including the Ministry of Health, which promoted physiotherapy services; the Ministry of Economy and Finance; the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, with a Special Education Office responsible for promoting inclusive education for children with disabilities; the Ministry of Public Works and Transport; and the Ministry of National Defense.[25]

The Disability Rights Initiative Cambodia (DRIC), is a five-year, Australian-funded program, launched in July 2014.[26] The DRIC was aimed at ensuring that persons with disabilities have increased opportunities for participation in social, economic, cultural, and political life through effective implementation of the NDSP. The main goals include to support Cambodia’s coordination of the NDSP, strengthen the capacity of DPOs, improve physical rehabilitation centers, and work with provincial and commune officials to promote disability inclusiveness.[27]

Carrying out the DRIC is a joint program of the UNDP, WHO, and UNICEF, through four components:

  • Component 1 (UNDP): Supporting government implementation of the CRPD.
  • Component 2 (UNDP): Supporting DPOs to raise the voice and protect the rights of persons with disabilities.
  • Component 3 (WHO): Supporting rehabilitation systems strengthening.
  • Component 4 (UNICEF): Inclusive governance and inclusive community development.

The DRIC (US$10.4 million 2014–2018) is managed by a UNDP Multi-Partner Trust Fund, which engages the UNDP, UNICEF, and WHO, as well as NGOs through grant funding. Australia chose this model to consolidate its previous program of disability support with a view to engaging in high-level policy and leverage additional technical and financial resources from the UN. However, Australia found that “this modality has also not proven to be the most effective or efficient due to issues with coordination, communication and synergy across the components, external communication and advocacy.”[28]

In 2016, it was reported that the DRIC was “largely on track in achieving the stated outputs, with the exception of component 3 which is the most complex and challenging.”[29] Through component 3 of the DRIC, the WHO was supporting the development of the Cambodian government’s ability to manage the rehabilitation sector by building the capacity of key rehabilitation sector stakeholders, increasing government involvement and rehabilitation sector leadership, and establishing a coordination mechanism.[30]

The Cambodia Disability Inclusive Development Fund (CDIDF), managed by UNICEF, is part of the broader DRIC program. In order to achieve the rights of persons with disabilities, the fund aims to increase capacity of and collaboration between decision makers, civil society, and communities by providing funding through international and national NGOs and community-based organizations.[31] It applies only to certain geographic focus areas in about half of Cambodia’s provinces.[32] In 2015, six NGOs had grants approved through the CDIDF: Caritas Cambodia, Handicap International (HI), Komar Pikar Foundation, Krousar Thmey, Capacity Building for Disability Cooperation (CABDICO), and Phnom Penh Center for Independent Living.[33]

Cambodia provided an update on victim assistance at the Mine Ban Treaty Fifteenth Meeting of States Parties in 2016.[34] Cambodia also included updates on physical rehabilitation and medical services provided to persons with disabilities in 2015 in its Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report.[35]

Inclusion and participation in victim assistance

JRS and the CMAA developed a survivor network in provinces in Cambodia, encouraging persons with disabilities to understand their legal and human rights and to take action to access those rights.[36]

Many organizations included survivors and persons with disabilities in the provision of services.

Service accessibility and effectiveness

Victim assistance activities






Rehabilitation services; gradual assumption of responsibilities for funding and management of the rehabilitation sector through PWDF



Survey and data collection, referrals, training on disability rights, included providing emergency food aid, house repair, funeral costs, and referrals, as well as disability awareness-raising

Angkor Association for the Disabled

National NGO

Education for persons with disabilities near Siem Reap

Arrupe Outreach Center Battambang

National NGO

Wheelchair classes for children, economic inclusion through loans and grants, youth peer support, awareness-raising, inclusive dance

Buddhism for Development

National NGO

Assisting commune leaders to integrate persons with disabilities into existing programs, including loans and conflict negotiation in Pailin and Battambang

Cambodian Development Mission for Disability (CDMD)

National NGO

Comprehensive community-based rehabilitation; referrals, loans, specific services to address visual impairments

Capacity Building of People with Disabilities in Community Organizations (CABDICO)

National NGO


Referrals, awareness, and educational support in Kep provinces; capacity-building for self-help groups; economic inclusion

Cambodian Disabled People’s Organization (CDPO)

National DPO

National coordination, mainstreaming disability into development, advocacy (rights monitoring, awareness-raising), and rights training for relevant ministries

Disability Development Services Program (DDSP: formerly Disability Development Services Pursat)

National NGO

Self-help groups, economic inclusion, referral, and community-based rehabilitation

National Center for Disabled Persons (NCDP)

National NGO

Referral, education, awareness, and self-help groups

Opération Enfants du Cambodge (OEC)

National NGO

Home-based physical rehabilitation and referrals, education, and economic inclusion, and emergency support to new mine survivors

Association for Aid and Relief (AAR) - Wheel Chairs for Development (WCD)

National NGO

Wheelchair production and production of assistive mobility devices

Veterans International-Cambodia Rehabilitation Project (VIC)

National NGO

Physical rehabilitation, prosthetics, self-help groups, community-based rehabilitation, and economic inclusion

ADD Cambodia

International NGO

Capacity-building of national DPOs; community-based rehabilitation

Exceed Worldwide (Cambodia Trust)

International NGO

Physical rehabilitation, prosthetic devices, training, and economic inclusion

Handicap International (HI)

International NGO

Support to national NGOs for economic inclusion; physical rehabilitation, disability mainstreaming activities, referrals


International organization

Physical rehabilitation, outreach, referrals

Japan Cambodia Interactive Association (JCIA)

International Organization

Vocational training

JRS/Jesuit Service Cambodia (JSC)

International organization/national NGO

Economic inclusion, rehabilitation, peer support, awareness, material support (housing and well grants), referral, wheelchair production; hearing aids and ear service, psychosocial support visits to rural survivors, advocacy with cluster munition and mine/ERW survivors

New Humanity

International NGO

Community-based rehabilitation


Emergency and continuing medical care

No significant improvements to healthcare services available to survivors were reported. Less than 1% of the population had voluntary health insurance. Some NGOs offered community-based health insurance.[37]

Physical rehabilitation, including prosthetics

The physical rehabilitation sector included 11 rehabilitation centers, three repair workshops; the Phnom Penh Component Factory, supported by the PWDF; the Faculty of Prosthetic & Orthotic Engineering (formerly, Cambodian School for Prosthetics and Orthotics, CSPO); and the Technical School for Medical Care.[38]

In 2016, 28,061 persons with disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors, received services from physical rehabilitation centers including prosthetics and other mobility devices and repairs for assistive devices.[39] In 2015, 26,662 persons with disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors, received such services.[40] Prior to 2015, Cambodia reported on the specific number of mine/ERW survivors receiving services among the total number of beneficiaries with disabilities recorded annually.[41]

The ICRC continued to improve the accessibility of rehabilitation services by providing direct support for the beneficiaries (reimbursing, together with the MoSVY, the cost of transport and of accommodation at the centers), as well as by supporting staff training, outreach programs, and networking between the rehabilitation centers and potential local partners. In 2016, the ICRC worked with local institutions to draft a curriculum for a physiotherapy school and developed a business model for the successful independence of the national orthopedic component factory. ICRC-assisted centers provided 1,223 prosthetists for mine/ERW survivors in 2016, and 1,224 in 2015.[42]

HI continued its project supporting the physical rehabilitation center of Kampong Cham. It focused on capacity-building for staff and improving the centers’ management systems in coordination with MoSAVY and PDWF, the Ministry of Health, and the ministries’ provincial counterparts.[43]

AAR, WCD, a national NGO, was forced to stop providing services, including wheelchairs and assistive devices, due to a lack of funding and donor constraints from July 2015 through May 2016. Both the production of wheelchairs and the geographical coverage of AAR, WDC decreased due to limited funding, and services focused on children with disabilities from 2016 through October 2017. Funding from AAR Japan supported the production of some 10 wheelchairs per month. The number of requests for wheelchairs and assistive devices from rural areas increased and new sources of donor funding were needed to meet the demand.[44]

Veterans International in Cambodia (VIC) reregistered as a local NGO in Cambodia in 2015. VIC supported the operation of the three physical rehabilitation centers in Kien Khleang, Prey Veng, and Kratie under co-management with the PWDF. VIC also continued to run a community-based rehabilitation program in Kandal, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, Kratie, and Phnom Penh provinces.

VIC statistics for 2016 and 2017 indicated an increase in services provision, with more than 4,250 clients from the three centers receiving services in 2016, while in 2017, there was a slight increase in clients received services (4,440). VIC reported that several factors contributed to more beneficiaries being reached, including increased quality and speed of services and greater awareness of the availability of services through outreach done with authorities. VIC clients and their caregivers received financial support for transportation and food from the PWDF and, at the end of 2017, additional support from the WHO.[45]

VIC reported making concerted efforts to handover its three centers in collaboration with the PWDF as the coordination body under the MoSVY, following a joint workplan to ensure the handover at the end of 2018.[46]

Economic and social integration and psychological support

The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in Cambodia is substantially higher than global averages. It was reported that there was a lack of activity to address this challenge with “just 0.2 per cent of the total health budget spent on mental health and no planning for psychologists and social workers in health sector human resource planning (in addition to psychiatrists and psychiatric nurses).”[47] A lack of awareness, understanding, funding, human resources, and leadership, as well as poor coordination of groups working in mental health were reported to be among the biggest challenges to accessing adequate psychological support.[48]

There were only two functioning vocational training centers for persons with disabilities in Cambodia, the Panteay Prieb center operated by JSC and the Phnom Penh Thmey center supported by JCIA. In 2016, 54 people with disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors were recorded as having been trained at the vocational training centers, compared to 58 in 2015.[49]

The ICRC supported some 80 persons with disabilities with income-generating activities in 2016, some beneficiaries were able to pay off their debts with the income earned. The ICRC also provided financial assistance to children’s school education and referred adults for jobs or vocational training.[50] Some 40 female wheelchair basketball players continued their training for regional competitions with ICRC support.[51]

HI supported economic inclusion through livelihoods access for persons with disabilities. This included vocational training, access to wage employment, removing barriers to healthcare, training and other services in Siem Reap province in collaboration with CABDICO. HI also supported self-advocacy and local development at the commune-level. The target beneficiaries are 1,720 vulnerable persons, including persons with disabilities and relatives of persons with disabilities through CDPO and the Representative Self-help Disabilities Organization Bantheay District (RSDOB) in four districts in Kampong Cham and Tbong Khmum provinces.[52]

A joint-study of 230 participants in Kampong Cham and Tbong Khmum provinces by the NGO Louvain Cooperation and HI found that persons with disabilities and their families experience significant psychological distress, endure discrimination and stigma, and their rights “remain largely unrecognized.” The study found that the level of physical impairment is a principal factor in the degree of psychological distress; survivors lost confidence in themselves after becoming disabled due to mine/ERW incidents and road accidents. Social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination, as well as family conflict and a lack of employment were key concerns. One third of respondents reported feeling worried, regretful, upset, embarrassed, lonely, and angry.[53]

Laws and policies

The 2009 Law on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities. The law also requires that buildings and government services be accessible to persons with disabilities.However, no authority or mechanism was put in place for standardizing accessibility or enforcing the law. Inaccessibility to public buildings, transport, facilities, and referral systems continued to prevent persons with disabilities from actively participating in social and economic activities. The government continued efforts to implement the law.[54] Some key provisions of national legislation are not in accordance with the CRPD, and the national disability law has not been amended by the MoSVY to ensure it is compatible with the CRPD. Though this is clearly the role of the ministry, the DAC, in accordance with Article 6 of the National Disability Law, is responsible for proposing revision to the national law.[55] In 2016, the MoSVY and the Ministry for Urban Planning met with the DAC to discuss accessibility standards for public buildings in accordance with the law.[56]

A 2010 sub-decree to the Law on Protection and the Promotion of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities requires that persons with disabilities make up at least 2% of the public sector and government departments with more than 50 employees. Private businesses with more than 100 employees have a quota for employing persons with disabilities as 1% their staff according to the sub-decree. Both the public and private sector were expected to fulfil the quota by 2013; within three years from the adoption of the sub-decree. By 2016, there was still “no accurate data” on how many persons with disabilities were employed overall, but some 1.3% of civil servants in 40 government agencies were persons with disabilities.[57]

[1] Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA), “CMVIS Monthly Report December 2015,” undated.

[2] Statement of Cambodia, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, 24 June 2014.

[3] UNDP and Cambodia, “Disability Rights Initiative Cambodia: Joint Programme Document,” December 2013, p. 5.

[4] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programme (PRP), “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 52; and ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2013,” Geneva, 2014.

[5] CCBL, Notes from National Workshop to Review the Implementation of the NDSP, Phnom Penh, 14 December 2015.

[6] JRS - Asia Pacific, “Annual Report 2016,” Bangkok, April 2017, p. 9.

[7] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form G; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form J.

[8] Analysis of CMVIS Monthly Reports for calendar year 2016.

[9] Statement of Cambodia, Mine Ban Treaty Fourteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 2 December 2015.

[10] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form G.

[11] Ibid.

[12] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 52.

[13] Sheree Bailey and Sophak Kanika Nguon (Report Prepared for UNICEF Cambodia), “Situation Analysis for Disability-Inclusive Governance and Community Development in Cambodia,” July 2014, p. 12.

[14] Statement of Cambodia, Mine Ban Treaty Thirteenth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 3 December 2013.

[15] Statement of Cambodia, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, 24 June 2014.

[16] National Disability Strategic Plan 2014.

[17] National Workshop to Review the Implementation of NDSP 2014–2018 and the Way Forward, Phnom Penh, 14–16 December 2015.

[18] Cambodia, “NDSP,” 2014.

[19] Holly Robertson and Khy Sovuthy, “Disability Initiatives Launched as Jobs Quota Not Met,” Cambodia Daily, 5 July 2014.

[21] SIDA, “Disability Rights in Cambodia,” January 2015.

[22] UNDP & Cambodia, “Disability Rights Initiative Cambodia: Joint Programme Document,” December 2013, p. 3; and DAC, “H.E Sem Sokha presided over the Launch of Disability Rights Initiative Cambodia,” 4 July 2014.

[23] UNDP & Cambodia, “Disability Rights Initiative Cambodia: Joint Programme Document,” December 2013, p. vi.

[24] Cambodia, “NDSP,” 2014.

[25] United States (US) Department of State, “2014 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Cambodia,” Washington, DC, 25 April 2015.

[27] Holly Robertson and Khy Sovuthy, “Disability Initiatives Launched as Jobs Quota Not Met,” Cambodia Daily, 5 July 2014.

[28] Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, “Investment Concept: Cambodia Vulnerable Peoples Support Program,” April 2017.

[29] Maya Thomas, “Mid-term Review of Disability Rights Initiative Cambodia,” May 2016, p. 34.

[31] CDIDF, “Call for Proposals 2014,” 30 September 2014; and “Call for Proposals 2015,” 30 April 2015.

[32] These were in the following provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, Siem Reap, Kampong Thom, Kampong Cham, Kandal, Phnom Penh, Preah Sihanouk, Ratanakiri, Mondulkiri, Prey Veng, and Svay Rieng.

[34] Statement of Cambodia, Mine Ban Treaty Fifteenth Meeting of States Parties, Santiago, 29 November 2016.

[35] Statement of Cambodia, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, 24 June 2014; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form J.

[36] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form G; Notes from Monitor field mission, December 2014; and statement of Cambodia, Mine Ban Treaty Third Review Conference, Maputo, 24 June 2014.

[37] Presentation by Ros Chhung Eang, Ministry of Health, National Workshop to Review the Implementation of NDSP, Phnom Penh, 14 December 2015.

[38] ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 52.

[39] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form G.

[40] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form J.

[41] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2014), Form J.

[42] The ICRC also provided 1,647 prostheses (81% for mine survivors) in 2014; and 1,597 prostheses (1,287 or 81% for mine survivors) in 2013. ICRC, “Annual Report 2016,” Geneva, 2017, p. 358; ICRC, “Annual Report 2015,” Geneva, 2016, p. 374; ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2014,” Geneva, 2015, p. 52; and ICRC PRP, “Annual Report 2013,” Geneva, 2014.

[44] Email from Sar Sophano, Executive Director, AAR, WCD, 19 October 2017.

[45] Email from Sophall Phorn, Program Manager, VIC, 2 November 2017.

[46] Ibid.

[47] SIDA, “Disability Rights in Cambodia,” January 2015.

[48]Mental Health Care Cambodia,” Asia Life, 2 January 2013; “Analysis: What ails Cambodia's mental health system?” IRIN, 12 March 2012; and Denise Hruby, “Cambodia suffers from an appalling mental health crisis,” Global Post, 18 June 2014.

[49] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2016), Form G; and Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2015), Form J.

[50] ICRC, Annual Report 2016,” Geneva 2017, p. 354.

[51] Ibid., p. 356.

[54] US Department of State, “2015 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Cambodia,” Washington, DC, 13 April 2016; and CCBL, Notes from National Workshop to Review the Implementation of NDSP, Phnom Penh, 14 December 2015.

[56] Andrew Nachemson, “Ministries discuss long-promised handicap accessibility,” Phnom Penh Post, 14 September 2016.

[57] David Hutt, “Failure to enforce jobs quota law shortchanges Cambodia’s disabled,” Southeast Asia Globe, 26 April 2016.