Cluster Munition Ban Policy
Summary: Non-signatory Egypt says it supports efforts to protect civilians from cluster munitions, but sees military utility in the weapons and objects to key provisions of the convention as well as the process that created it. Egypt abstained from voting on a key UN resolution on the convention in December 2016. It has participated in several meetings of the convention, most recently in 2013.
Egypt is a producer, importer, exporter, and possessor of stockpiles of cluster munitions. Egypt states that it has not used cluster munitions, but since March 2015, it has participated in a Saudi Arabia-led military operation in Yemen that has used cluster munitions.
The Arab Republic of Egypt has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
Egypt has expressed its support for efforts to protect civilians from cluster munitions, but sees military utility in the weapons and has long-held objections to key provisions of the convention and the fast-track process that created it.
In December 2016, Egypt abstained from voting on a UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution that urges states outside the Convention on Cluster Munition “to join as soon as possible.” Egypt also abstained from the vote on the first UNGA resolution on the convention in December 2015.
Egypt participated in the Oslo Process that created the convention and engaged in the negotiations in Dublin in May 2008 as an observer, but did not attend the Oslo Signing Conference in December 2008. Despite participating in the process, Egypt expressed concern in October 2008 over both the “substantive content” of the convention and “the process which led to its conclusion outside the framework of the United Nations.”
Egypt participated as an observer in the convention’s Second Meeting of States Parties in Beirut, Lebanon, in 2011 as well as intersessional meetings in Geneva in 2011 and 2013.
Egypt has voted in favor of UNGA resolutions expressing outrage at the use of cluster munitions in Syria, most recently in December 2016.
Egypt is not party to the Mine Ban Treaty. Egypt signed the Convention on Conventional Weapons in 1981, but never ratified it.
Production, transfer, and stockpiling
Egypt is a producer, importer, exporter, and possessor of stockpiles of cluster munitions.
Two state-owned Egyptian companies have produced ground-launched cluster munitions:
- SAKR Factory for Developed Industries has produced two types of 122mm surface-to-surface rockets: the SAKR-18 and SAKR-36, containing 72 and 98 dual-purpose improved conventional munition (DPICM) submunitions, respectively.
- Heliopolis Company for Chemical Industries has produced 122mm and 130mm artillery projectiles, which contain 18 and 28 DPICM submunitions, respectively.
In February 2017, Egypt’s Ministry of Military Production promoted Heliopolis-made cluster munition artillery projectiles at its display at the international arms fair IDEX in Abu Dhabi.
Evidence indicates that Egypt exported or otherwise transferred cluster munitions to Syria in the past, most likely before the current conflict. Human Rights Watch (HRW) and others documented Syrian government use of 122mm cluster munition rockets bearing the markings of the SAKR Factory for Developed Industries. The state-owned company in September 2013 denied that it provided SAKR rockets to the Syrian government of President Assad.
Egypt has imported a significant number of cluster munitions, primarily from the United States (US), which provided at least 760 CBU-87 cluster bombs (each containing 202 BLU-97 submunitions) as part of a foreign military sales program in the early 1990s. Lockheed Martin Corporation was awarded a US$36 million contract to produce 485 M26A1 Extended Range Multiple Launch Rocket System rockets for Egypt in November 1991. Between 1970 and 1995, the US also supplied Egypt with 1,300 Rockeye cluster bombs.
Additionally, Jane’s Information Group notes that KMG-U dispensers of Soviet-origin are also in service for Egypt’s aircraft.
During the Oslo Process, Egypt stated that it has never used cluster munitions.
Since March 2015, Egypt has participated in a Saudi Arabia-led military operation against Houthi forces (Ansar Allah) in Yemen that has used cluster munitions. Egypt has not commented on evidence that the Saudi-led coalition has used cluster munitions in Yemen, including US-made M26 cluster munition rockets of the same type that Egypt possesses. However, a statement by the “Coalition Forces Supporting Legitimacy in Yemen” published by the Saudi Press Agency in December 2016 states:
“International law does not ban the use of cluster munitions. Some States have undertaken a commitment to refrain from using cluster munitions by becoming party to the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions. Neither the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia nor its Coalition partners are State Parties to the 2008 Convention, and accordingly, the Coalition’s use of cluster munitions does not violate the obligations of these States under international law.”
 For example, in September 2011, Egypt claimed the convention “will not hold states which are using cluster munitions responsible for their acts” or “hold them to account for clearing contaminated areas.” Statement of Egypt, Convention on Cluster Munitions Second Meeting of States Parties, Beirut, 14 September 2011.
 “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 71/45, 5 December 2016.
 “Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” UNGA Resolution 70/54, 7 December 2015.
 For details on Egypt’s cluster munition policy and practice through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 197–199.
 Egypt’s explanation of vote, UNGA First Committee on Disarmament and International Security, 30 October 2008.
 “Situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic,” UNGA Resolution 71/203, 19 December 2016. Egypt voted in favor of similar resolutions in 2013–2015.
 Leland S. Ness and Anthony G. Williams, eds., Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2007–2008 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2007), p. 707. France declared that upon entry into force of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in 2010, France’s military retained six warheads for 122mm SAKR rockets containing a total of 588 submunitions. France, Convention on Cluster Munitions Article 7 Report, Form C, 31 January 2011, p. 92.
 Leland S. Ness and Anthony G. Williams, eds., Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2007–2008 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2007), pp. 582, 589–590.
 Brochure, Heliopolis Co. for Chemical Industries, National Organization for Military Production, Ministry of Military Production, Arab Republic of Egypt, pp. 8, 10 & 12. Shared by Omega Research via Twitter, 3 March 2017.
 HRW, “Syria: Army Using New Type of Cluster Munition,” 14 January 2013. In addition, a number of SAKR rockets were found in Iraq by UN weapons inspectors possibly indicating export activity. The SAKR rockets were the “cargo variant” but had been modified by the Iraqis to deliver chemical weapons. “Sixteenth quarterly report on the activities of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission in accordance with paragraph 12 of Security Council resolution 1284 (1999) S/2004/160,” Annex 1, p. 10.
 See, Brown Moses blog, “Evidence of New Grad Launched Cluster Munitions Used in Syria,” 15 December 2012; HRW Press Release, “Syria: Army Using New Type of Cluster Munition,” 14 January 2013; and The Rogue Adventurer blog, “Sakr 122mm Cargo Rockets & Submunitions in Syria,” 15 January 2013. It is not known if the 122mm rockets were the SAKR-18 or SAKR-36 type. See also, “Dael find a surface to surface missile did not explode Egyptian industry,” uploaded to YouTube on 8 November 2014.
 “Dozen + Mideast Nations Bought Weapons since Gulf War,” Aerospace Daily, 10 December 1991; and Barbara Starr, “Apache buy will keep Israeli edge,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 1 October 1992.
 US Department of Defense Press Release, “US Army Aviation & Missile Command Contract Announcement: DAAH01-00-C-0044,” 9 November 2001.
 US Defense Security Assistance Agency, Department of Defense, “Cluster Bomb Exports under FMS, FY1970–FY1995,” 5 November 1995, obtained by HRW in a Freedom of Information Act request, 28 November 1995.
 Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air-Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2004), p. 838.
 Statement by Ehab Fawzy, Oslo Conference on Cluster Munitions, Oslo, 22 February 2007. Notes by the CMC/Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.
 HRW, “Yemen: Cluster Munition Rockets Kill, Injure Dozens,” 26 August 2015.
 “Coalition Forces supporting legitimacy in Yemen confirm that all Coalition countries aren't members to the Convention on Cluster Munitions,” Saudi Press Agency, 19 December 2016.
Mine Ban Policy
The Arab Republic of Egypt has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty.
Egypt has regularly stated its reasons for opposing the treaty, reiterating that antipersonnel landmines are seen as a key means for securing its borders and that responsibility for clearance is not assigned in the treaty to those who laid the mines in the past.
In October 2016, Egypt said it, “views the Convention as lacking balance between the humanitarian concerns relating to the production and use of anti-personnel landmines and their legitimate military use in border protection, particularly in countries with long borders and which face extraordinary security challenges. Furthermore, the Convention does not impose any legal responsibility on a State to remove anti-personnel mines they have placed in the territory of others, making it almost impossible for any State to meet the demining requirement on its own.” It abstained on pro-mine ban UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 71/34 on 5 December 2016, as it has in all previous years.
Egypt participated as an observer at the Third Review Conference in Maputo and Meetings of States Parties in 2013, 2012, and 2010. It did not participate in any meetings of the convention in 2016 or early 2017.
Egypt signed the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) in 1981 but has never ratified it.
No new use of antipersonnel mines could be confirmed by the Monitor in 2017. Previously, military authorities had stated to an Egyptian newspaper that they had begun to lay landmines around military outposts in Sinai in May 2015, which resulted in the reported deaths of two militants. Egypt did not respond to a letter sent by the ICBL in June 2015 requesting clarification on the report.
Militants linked with Islamic State (IS) claimed to have emplaced mines on the perimeter of a police station during a May 2015 attack in the Sinai town of Sheikh Zuweid. State officials have claimed that IS is manufacturing munitions from explosives recovered from mines in uncleared minefields in Egypt. In April 2017, the Ministry of Defense reported that it had uncovered a small cache of Iranian-made mines.
In July 2012, a retired military engineer, General Mohamed Khater, who was formerly in charge of mine clearance in the engineering corps, reportedly stated that the Egyptian armed forces laid a minefield in 2011 on the country’s border with Libya, presumably when forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi lost control of the border to anti-Gaddafi resistance fighters. The Monitor has not been able to verify this claim.
Production, transfer, and stockpiling
Egypt has stated that it stopped production of antipersonnel mines in 1988 and stopped exports in 1984. In December 2004, Egypt’s Deputy Assistant Foreign Minister stated that “the Egyptian government has imposed a moratorium on all export and production activities related to anti-personnel mines.” This was the first time that Egypt publicly and officially announced a moratorium on production. The Monitor is not aware of any official decrees or laws to implement permanent prohibitions on production or export of antipersonnel mines. In December 2012, Egypt said that it “imposed a moratorium on its capacity to produce and export landmines in 1980.”
However, in February 2017, the Egyptian Ministry of Military Production advertised Heliopolis plastic antipersonnel landmines for sale at its display at IDEX in Abu Dhabi. Egyptian authorities did not respond to a June 2017 request by a Monitor researcher for further information regarding the apparent change in policy on export, and possibly production, indicated by the IDEX sales brochure.
Egypt is believed to have a large stockpile of antipersonnel mines, but no details are available on the size and composition of the stockpile, as it is considered a state secret.
 Egypt explained its abstention in voting on UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 65/48 in December 2010 as, “Egypt views this convention as lacking balance between the humanitarian consideration related to APLM [antipersonnel landmine] and their legitimate military use for border protection. Most importantly, the convention does not acknowledge the legal responsibility of States for demining APLM they themselves have laid, in particular in territories of other States, making it almost impossible for affected States to meet alone the Convention’s demining requirements…The mentioned weaknesses are only complemented by the weak international cooperation system of the Convention which remains limited in its effect and much dependent on the will of donor States. The mentioned weaknesses of Ottawa convention have kept the largest world producers and some of the world’s most heavily affected States outside its regime, making the potential for its universality questionable and reminding us all of the value of concluding arms-control and disarmament agreements in the context of United Nations and not outside its framework.” Statement of Egypt, “Explanation of Vote on Resolution on the Ottawa APLM Convention, L.8,” UNGA First Committee, New York, 27 October 2010.
 In October 2016, Egypt reiterated its view that it abstains from the vote, “due to the unbalanced nature of this instrument, which was developed and concluded outside the framework of the United Nations.” Explanation of Vote on UNGA Draft Resolution L.7/Rev.1., Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, General Assembly, Official Records, 71st Session: First Committee, 24th Meeting, New York, 31 October 2016, A/C.1/71/PV.24, pp. 24/35. See also previous Explanation of Vote on Resolution L.50 70th Session, UNGA First Committee, New York, 4 November 2015, A/C.1/70/PV.24; and Resolution L.5, 69th Session, UNGA First Committee, New York, 3 November 2014, UNGA, Official Records, A/C.1/69/PV.23, pp. 17/23.
 “New security plans to ‘entrap’ Sinai militants by landmines,” The Cairo Post, 20 May 2015.
 Ernst D., “ISIS digs up Nazi-era land mines of the Sahara, adds weapons to modern arsenal,” Washington Post, 10 August 2016.
 “كيف وصلت أسلحة إيران لخلايا الإخوان الإرهابية بمصر؟,” Al Arabia, 17 April 2017. Photograph shows what appears to be an Iranian No. 4 antipersonnel blast mine. This type has been previously found in Sudan, but Egyptian authorities allege it was smuggled from Gaza.
 Statement of Egypt, Mine Ban Treaty Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 22 September 2006; and statement of Egypt, “Explanation of Vote on Resolution on the Ottawa APLM Convention, L.8,” UNGA First Committee, New York, 27 October 2010.
 Statement of Egypt, Mine Ban Treaty First Review Conference, Nairobi, 2 December 2004.
 Egypt told a UN assessment mission in February 2000 that it ceased export of antipersonnel mines in 1984 and ended production in 1988, and several Egyptian officials over the years also told the Monitor informally that production and trade had stopped. However, Egypt has not responded to repeated requests by the Monitor to make that position formal and public in writing. The Monitor has therefore kept Egypt on its list of producers. Egypt reportedly produced two types of low metal content blast antipersonnel mines, several variations of bounding fragmentation mines, and a Claymore-type mine. There is no publicly available evidence that Egypt has produced or exported antipersonnel mines in recent years. See, Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 957.
 Statement of Egypt, “Explanation of Vote on Resolution on the Ottawa APLM Convention, L.8,” UNGA First Committee, New York, 2 December 2012.
Contaminated by: landmines (extent unknown) and unexploded ordnance (UXO).
Recommendation for action
- The Arab Republic of Egypt should seek assistance to develop a functioning civilian mine action program.
Egypt is contaminated with mines in the Western Desert, which date from World War II, and in the Sinai Peninsula and Eastern Desert, which are a legacy of wars with Israel between 1956 and 1973. Some mine incidents in Sinai may have been caused by mines emplaced by anti-government jihadist groups. The precise extent of contamination across the country remains unknown and past estimates have been unreliable.
Most of the Western Desert contamination occurs around the location of World War II battles that took place between the Quattara depression and Alamein on the Mediterranean coast. In November 2016, during a ceremony to mark the opening of a new prosthetic limb centre, the United Kingdom’s Ambassador to Egypt announced that all the maps of minefields laid by British and Allied forces during World War II had been handed over. According to the head of the military engineering department, though, the British minefield maps were “sketch maps” and most of the mines were buried randomly. Other affected areas lie around the city of Marsa Matrouh and at Sallum near the Libyan border.
In August 2016, it was reported that Islamic State had been harvesting the explosives from World War II mines still uncleared in Egypt. According to Ambassador Fathy el-Shazly, formerly the head of Egypt’s Executive Secretariat for Mine Clearance, “We’ve had at least 10 reports from the military of terrorists using old mines. Even now, these things trouble us in different ways.”
In 2016 as in previous years, the mine action program in Egypt was not functioning effectively.
A joint project between the Egyptian government and the UN Development Programme (UNDP), “Support the North West Coast Development Plan and Mine Action Programme: Mine Action” is ongoing. The project provides for creation of an Executive Secretariat for Mine Clearance and the Development of the North West Coast within the Ministry of Planning to coordinate implementation of the North West Coast Development Plan through a partnership consisting of the Ministry of Planning, the Ministry of Defense, and the UNDP. The project foresaw demining based on humanitarian and development needs, mine risk education, and assistance to mine victims.
The first phase of the project concluded in 2014. The director of the executive secretariat acknowledged that the results had been disappointing, due to instability in the country. A second phase is due to last until 2017, funded by the European Union (EU), the UNDP, and USAID.
In January 2017, Egypt’s Minister of International Cooperation Sahar Nasr announced the establishment of the National Centre for Landmine Action and Sustainable Development. Minister Nasr said that the center would begin clearing 600 square kilometers on the northern coast and would also establish infrastructure after clearance was completed.
Mine clearance in Egypt is conducted by the Egyptian Army Corps of Engineers, part of the Egyptian armed forces.
The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) provides support to the Executive Secretariat and the Army Corps of Engineers in information management and operations. This support includes revision and introduction of national standard operating procedures for mine action in 2014, advice on land release methodology and techniques, and assistance to the UNDP in improving mechanical mine action.
As noted above, the UNDP is a partner in Egypt’s national demining and development program.
Egypt has not reported with any credibility on its release of mined areas in recent years.
The Monitor acknowledges the contributions of the Mine Action Review (www.mineactionreview.org), which has conducted the mine action research in 2017, including on survey and clearance, and shared all its resulting landmine and cluster munition reports with the Monitor. The Monitor is responsible for the findings presented online and in its print publications.
 A. Nayder, “Helping Landmine Victims in Marsa Matrouh-And Preventing More,” Because, 3 November 2016.
 R. Imam, E. Rashed, and M. Fouad, “Devil’s Gardens Nearly 639 killed & injured in El Alamein,” Middle East Observer, 23 November 2016.
 P. Schwartzstein, “ISIS Is Digging Up Nazi Landmines From World War 2 As Explosives,” Newsweek, 10 August 2016.
 UNDP, “Support to the North West Coast Development and Mine Action Plan,” undated.
 M. Samir, “UNDP, USAID provide EGP 13.8m for WWII landmines clearance programme,” Daily News Egypt, 20 May 2015.
 UNDP, “EU and UNDP celebrate the launch of the second phase of the project to help develop the North West Coast and mine action,” Press release, 24 October 2014; and M. Samir, “UNDP, USAID provide EGP 13.8m for WWII landmines clearance programme,” Daily News Egypt, 20 May 2015.
 H. Salah, “Establishment of National Center for Mines Action and Sustainable Development completed: Nasr,” Daily News Egypt, 23 January 2017.
Support for Mine Action
The mine action program in the Arab Republic of Egypt has been stalled since 2009 following the completion of the first phase of a UNDP-supported mine action program (“Support to the North West Coast Development Plan and Mine Action Program”). The second phase of the project—which aims to expand mine clearance operations, facilitate development in the region, reintegrate mine victims, strengthen the national mine action capacity, and assist with resource mobilization efforts—was supposed to start in 2011, but was subject to numerous delays due to lack of funding and political events in Egypt. Finally, phase II was launched in October 2014 with new support (US$6.3 million) provided by the European Union (EU).
In 2015, New Zealand was Egypt’s sole international mine action donor, contributing some NZ$600,000 ($420,000) through the UNDP.
Since 2012, Egypt has not reported any contributions to its own mine action program. The Egyptian army conducts all demining, and no costs associated with demining by the military are publicly available.
From 2011–2015, international contributions totaled some $9.6 million, 65% of which was provided in 2014.
Summary of contributions: 2011–2015
International contributions ($)
 Interview with Amb. Fathy el-Shazly, Executive Secretariat, in Geneva, 21 March 2012; and UNDP, “Support to the North West Coast Development Plan and Relevant Mine Action: Phase II,” Project Overview, undated.
 UNDP, “EU and UNDP Celebrate the Launch of the Second Phase of the Project to Help Develop the North West Coast and Mine Action,” Press Release, 24 October 2014. Email from Jérôme Legrand, Policy Officer, Conventional Weapons and Space Division (K1), European External Action Service (EEAS), 11 June 2015. Average exchange rate for 2014: €1=US$1.3297. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 2 January 2015.
 See previous Monitor reports.
Several sources have estimated the total number of known casualties to be around 8,000 in the Arab Republic of Egypt. However, the period of data collection for these statistics is not reported. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs reported in 2006 that there had been 8,313 mine casualties (696 people killed; 7,617 injured; 5,017 were civilians) in the Western Desert since 1982. Almost identical statistics were reported in 1998, but for the period 1945–1996.
By May 2015, detailed information had been collected on 761 survivors in the Matruh governorate. This database was believed to include information on 91–95% of all mine/ERW survivors in the governorate. No data was available on survivors based outside of Matruh and no updates had been announced since 2015.
Through the end of 2016 the National Committee for Supervising the Demining of the North West Coast was responsible for the coordination of victim assistance. In January 2017, Egypt established a new governmental agency for mine action including victim assistance, the National Center for Mine Action and Sustainable Development,to replace the Executive Committee for Supervising Mine Clearance and Development of the North West Coast, established in 2005. Victim assistance activities have been restricted to the Matruh governorate and there was no victim assistance coordination for the rest of Egypt.
The Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Social Solidarity shared responsibility for protecting the rights of all persons with disabilities in Egypt.
In 2015, the UNDP, in partnership with the Ministry of International Cooperation, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Ministry of Defense, launched the second phase of “Support to the North West Coast Development Plan and Relevant Mine Action,” which included victim assistance activities. In 2015, the Executive Secretariat reported that 259 survivors received prostheses under these projects.
In October 2016, the Ministry of International Cooperation, the European Union (EU) Delegation to Egypt, and the UNDP inaugurated the EU-funded Artificial Limbs Center in Marsa Matrouh. The center is the first prosthetics facility in the North-West Coast area and was built to serve the population of Matrouh governorate and its neighboring areas. The UNDP reported that the opening of the center was one of the major accomplishments of the project “Support to the North West Coast Development Plan and Relevant Mine Action: Phase II.”
While the constitution states that all citizens are equal, there is no explicit prohibition on discrimination. Egypt had no legislation prohibiting discrimination against persons with disabilities in education, access to healthcare, or the provision of other state services, nor are there laws mandating access to buildings or transportation. Discrimination remained widespread. Transport on state-owned mass transit buses was free for persons with disabilities, but the buses were not wheelchair-accessible, and access required assistance from others. Persons with disabilities received special subsidies to purchase household products, wheelchairs, and prosthetic devices.
Egypt ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on 14 April 2008.
 Notes taken by the Monitor, Beirut Conference, 11 February 1999; Ministry of Defense, “The Iron Killers,” undated, pp. 3–4; and Amb. Dr. Mahmoud Karem, “Explanation of Vote by the Delegation of the Arab Republic of Egypt on the Resolution on Anti-Personal Landmines,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Policy Document, November 1998. Similar figures cited in a Ministry of Foreign Affairs paper on the Mine Ban Treaty, obtained 5 September 2004, were at the time believed to only apply to casualties occurring in the Western Desert since 1982.
 Executive Secretariat, “Victim Assistance Strategy Paper,” Cairo, 2010, p. 28.
 Ministry of Investment and International Cooperation “Minister of Investment & Int'l Cooperation Took Part in a Parliamentary Hearing Session on the Investment Law,” 14 March 2017; and H. Salah, “Establishment of National Center for Mines Action and Sustainable Development completed: Nasr,” Daily News Egypt, 23 January 2017.
 United States (US) Department of State, “2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Egypt,” Washington, DC, 3 April 2017.
 UNDP, “Egypt - Mine Action Project Quarterly Progress Report,” 1 January 2013–31 March 2013; UNDP, “Support to the North West Coast Development and Mine Action Plan - What is the project about?,” undated; and UNDP, “From Victims to Activists,” undated.
 Ministry of International Cooperation, “Dr. Nasr Inaugurates the First Artificial Limbs Center in Marsa Matrouh,”21 October 2016; and A. Nayder, “Helping Landmine Victims in Marsa Matrouh-And Preventing More,” Because, 3 November 2016.
 UNDP, “EU-UNDP initiative opens first Artificial Limbs Center in Egypt's North West Coast,” 22 October 2016.
 US Department of State, “2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Egypt,” Washington, DC, 3 April 2017.