Landmine Monitor Report 2005 reveals that the Mine Ban Treaty and the mine ban movement continue to make good progress toward eradicating antipersonnel landmines and saving lives and limbs in every region of the world. Significant challenges remain, however.
This edition of the Landmine Monitor reports in detail on progress and challenges remaining in over 100 countries, including all the most mine-affected countries and those with substantial stockpiles of antipersonnel mines, and the dwindling minority of states which have not yet joined the Mine Ban Treaty. Landmine Monitor Report 2005 provides an annual update to Landmine Monitor Report 2004, which included a review of progress for the period 1999-2004, including every country in the world.
The reporting period for Landmine Monitor Report 2005 is May 2004 to May 2005. Editors have where possible added important information that arrived in June-September 2005. Statistics for mine action and landmine casualties are usually given for calendar year 2004, with comparisons to 2003.
Increased international rejection of antipersonnel mines
As of 30 September 2005, 147 countries were States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty, and another seven had signed but not yet ratified, constituting well over three-quarters of the world’s nations. Since the last Landmine Monitor report, four countries joined the treaty including Ethiopia, which is mine-affected and where there was substantial use of antipersonnel mines in the recent past, as well as Bhutan, Latvia, and Vanuatu. Additionally:
- several more governments were poised to ratify or accede, including Ukraine,
- many states not party to the Mine Ban Treaty took steps consistent with the treaty,
- an increasing number of non-state armed groups embraced the ban on antipersonnel mines.
It is evident that a new international norm is emerging.
First Review Conference
The landmark First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty, also known as the “Nairobi Summit on a Mine-Free World,” held in Kenya from 29 November to 3 December 2004, was the biggest and highest-level gathering on landmines since the Mine Ban Treaty was opened for signature in Ottawa, Canada on 3 December 1997. The meeting demonstrated the continued strength and vitality of the mine ban movement, and the long-term commitment of governments and NGOs to solve the landmine problem. States Parties agreed to adopt the Nairobi Action Plan which will guide efforts for the next five years.
Forty countries, with a combined stockpile of some 160 million antipersonnel mines, remain outside of the Mine Ban Treaty. They include three of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (China, Russia and the United States), most of the Middle East, most of the former Soviet republics, and many Asian states.
No use of antipersonnel mines by States Parties and signatories
There is no evidence, or even serious allegation, of use of antipersonnel mines by Mine Ban Treaty States Parties or signatories. This is notable because many current States Parties were users of antipersonnel mines in the recent past before becoming States Parties, including both signatories and non-signatories to the treaty.
Use by four governments continues
In this reporting period, at least three governments continued using antipersonnel mines: Myanmar(Burma), Nepal and Russia. There is also evidence that Georgia used antipersonnel mines in 2004, although the government denies it.
Non-State Armed Groups continue using antipersonnel mines
Opposition groups are reported to have used antipersonnel mines in at least 13 countries (compared to 16 in 2003, 11 in 2002, and 14 in 2001): Burma, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, India, Iraq, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia (including Chechnya, Dagestan and North Ossetia), Somalia, Turkey and Uganda. Unconfirmed, small-scale use was also reported in four other countries: Afghanistan, Egypt, Sri Lanka and Yemen.
Added to the list in this reporting period is Pakistan, where rebel use intensified. No use by non-state actors was reported in this period in Bhutan, Bolivia, DR Congo and Perú and these countries were removed from the list.
At least 38 nations have ceased production of antipersonnel mines, including 33 States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty, and five non-States Parties (Egypt, Finland, Iraq, Israel and Poland). Egypt and Iraq were dropped from the list of producers this year, as Egypt formally stated at the First Review Conference that it has a moratorium on production, and Iraq confirmed that its production facilities were destroyed in 2003 by Coalition bombing.
Landmine Monitor identifies 13 countries as producers of antipersonnel mines, either currently producing or having reserved the right to produce in the future: Burma, China, Cuba, India, Iran, North Korea, South Korea, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Singapore, United States, and Vietnam.
De facto global ban on trade in antipersonnel mines
Global trade in antipersonnel mines has dwindled to a very low level of illicit trafficking and unacknowledged trade. There were no confirmed instances of antipersonnel mine transfers, as the de facto global ban on trade held tight.
Millions of stockpiled antipersonnel mines destroyed
Some 400,000 stockpiled antipersonnel mines have been destroyed by States Parties since the last Landmine Monitor report, with non-States Parties including China destroying additional quantities. In this reporting period, six States Parties completed destruction of their stockpiles: Bangladesh, Colombia, Mauritania, Tanzania, Uruguay and Zambia. Sixty-nine States Parties have completed destruction. Additionally, Guinea-Bissau is expected to finish in October 2005, and Algeria in November 2005.
States Parties collectively have destroyed more than 38.3 million antipersonnel mines.
Millions of mines stockpiled by non-States Parties
Landmine Monitor estimates that non-signatories stockpile over 160 million antipersonnel mines, the majority held by a just six states: China (est. 110 million), Russia (26.5 million), US (10.4 million),Pakistan (est. 6 million), India (est. 4-5 million) and South Korea (2 million). Russia revealed its stockpile total for the first time.
More mines retained for training and development
Over 248,000 antipersonnel mines are retained by 74 of 147 States Parties, under the exception granted by Article 3 of the treaty. In this reporting period, Burundi, Serbia and Montenegro, Sudan and Turkey have joined this group. Five States Parties account for nearly one-third of all retained mines: Brazil, Algeria, Bangladesh, Sweden and Turkey. At least 64 States Parties have chosen not to retain any mines.
States Parties' compliance with the treaty requirement to submit an initial transparency report increased to 96 percent in 2004 (91 percent in 2003), but as of 30 September 2005 six States Parties had not submitted overdue initial Article 7 reports.
Compliance with the requirement to submit an annual update report was worse in 2004 (65 percent) than in 2003 (78 percent).
Non-State Party Sri Lanka submitted a voluntary transparency report in June 2005, joining Belarus, Cameroon, Gambia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Ukraine which also submitted voluntary reports as non-States Parties. In another welcome development, several other non-States Parties have stated their intention to provide voluntary reports.
Still too many mine-affected countries
Landmine Monitor research identifies at least 84 countries, and eight areas not internationally recognized as independent states, that are affected to some degree by landmines and/or unexploded ordnance (UXO), of which 54 are States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty.
Expanding mine action programs
In 2004, well over 135 square kilometers of mine-affected land were cleared in 37 countries and areas. In addition, more than 170 square kilometers affected by UXO were cleared through battle area clearance. Afghanistan cleared the largest amount of mined land (33.3 square kilometers), followed by Cambodia(32 square kilometers). More than five square kilometers of mined land were also cleared in 2004 in: Angola, Croatia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Mozambique and Poland.
Meeting Article 5 deadlines for completing mine clearance
Only three States Parties (Costa Rica, Djibouti and Honduras) had reported completing clearance of mined areas as of December 2004; Djibouti declared itself to be mine-safe rather than mine-free.
Some States Parties appear not to be on course to meet their Article 5 deadlines, including eight of the 14 States Parties with 2009 deadlines - Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chad, Croatia, Denmark, Niger, Swaziland, Thailand and the United Kingdomas well as Cambodia with a 1 March 2010 deadline.
Expanded mine risk education but in fewer countries
Mine risk education programs expanded in many countries, and became better integrated with clearance and other mine action activities. But Landmine Monitor recorded mine risk education in 61 countries and six areas in 2004-2005; 41 of the countries are States Parties, and 20 are not party to the Mine Ban Treaty.
Casualties in fewer countries
In 2004-2005, there were new landmine and UXO casualties reported in 58 countries (eight less than reported last year) and in eight areas (one more). In this reporting period, casualties were recorded in four "new" countries—Belarus, Djibouti, El Salvador and Venezuela—and in Taiwan, none of which reported casualties in the previous year. Twelve countries that reported landmine/UXO casualties previously did not do so in 2004-2005: Bolivia, Chile, Indonesia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, FYR Macedonia, Malawi, Namibia, Niger, Perú and Ukraine.
Continuing casualties means more mine victims needing assistance
The number of reported new mine/UXO casualties has dropped significantly in some heavily mine-affected countries. Landmine Monitor's best estimate, given the lack of reliable records and under-reporting, is that there are between 15,000 and 20,000 new landmine/UXO casualties each year. But the important fact is that the number of landmine survivors continues to grow, and the assistance needed by mine survivors is inadequate in many countries.
Twenty-four States Parties have been identified as having significant numbers of mine survivors: Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Colombia, Croatia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Perú, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Sudan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Uganda and Yemen. In this reporting period there were new mine/UXO casualties in all these countries except Perú. At the First Review Conference, it was acknowledged that all States have a responsibility to assist mine survivors.
Donations to mine action continue increasing
International funding of mine action funding totaled US$399 million in 2004, up from $339 million in 2003 and $324 million in 2002, although much of this increase is due to the declining value of the US dollar. The top four donors were United States ($96.5 million), European Commission ($71.4 million), Japan ($42.8 million) and Norway ($34.3 million). The biggest increases came from Japan (up $29.8 million), the US (up $15.9 million), the Netherlands (up $7.9 million) and Norway (up $5.76 million). The EC increase was $6.9 million, due mainly to exchange rate distortions—there was barely an increase in Euros.
Of the top 20 donors, half provided more mine action funding in 2004: Austria, Denmark, European Commission, Japan, Ireland, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway and the US.
Donor decreases in mine action funding
More national funding by mine-affected countries
Some mine-affected countries invested more national resources in mine action in 2004, including Croatia ($30.4 million), Bosnia and Herzegovina ($9.8 million), Mozambique ($7.9 million, in-kind), Ethiopia ($4 million) and Yemen ($3.5 million).
Recipients of mine action funding
Countries receiving the most mine action funding in 2004 were Afghanistan ($91.8 million), Iraq ($58.7 million), Cambodia ($41.6 million) and Angola ($28 million), Sri Lanka ($23.6 million), Bosnia and Herzegovina ($18.8 million) and Sudan ($15 million). At least 24 other mine-affected countries and areas received over $1 million in mine action funding in 2004.
Increases in mine action funding were received by Cambodia (up $24.6 million), Afghanistan (up $16.6 million), Bosnia and Herzegovina (up $8.4 million), Sri Lanka (up $7.8 million), Sudan (up $5.5 million), Iraq (up $3.7 million), Angola (up $2.7 million); increases of over $1 million were also received by Croatia, Jordan, Laos, Somaliland and Vietnam.
Decreases were experienced by Mozambique (down $3.3 million), Eritrea (down $2 million), Azerbaijan (down $2.1 million) and Nicaragua (down $1.3 million).