ALBANIA: On 4 April 2002, Albania completed the destruction of its stockpile of 1,683,860 antipersonnel mines. No mines are being retained for training or development purposes. Albania has identified a total of 85 contaminated areas, totaling 14 million square meters of land. Lack of funding has hampered clearance efforts. During 2001, a total of 302,000 square meters of land was cleared, including 744 antipersonnel mines. There were nine new mine and UXO casualties in 2001, a significant reduction from the previous year. Albania submitted its initial Article 7 Report in April 2002.
ALGERIA: Algeria ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 9 October 2001, and the treaty entered into force for Algeria on 1 April 2002. An interministerial commission responsible for the landmine issue is being established.
ANGOLA: Angola ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 5 July 2002. There have been no reports of new use of antipersonnel mines since the April 2002 peace agreement. The government created a new Inter-Sectoral Commission on Demining and Humanitarian Assistance to be responsible for policy-making, coordination of mine action and victim assistance, and the design of a new National Mine Action Plan. According to the mine action NGOs operating in Angola, 6.8 million square meters of land were cleared during 2001. A total of 339 mine and UXO accidents, resulting in 660 casualties, were reported in 2001, a significant decline from the year 2000.
ARGENTINA: Argentina told Landmine Monitor that of the 13,025 mines it had officially declared as retained for training purposes, 12,025 will be emptied of their explosive content to make inert “exercise mines.” Argentina also reported for the first time that the Army will keep 1,160 FMK-1 antipersonnel mines to use as fuzes for antivehicle mines, apparently for training purposes. The total number of reported stockpiled mines has increased by 7,343. Stockpile destruction plans have been developed. A documentary film appears to have established that mines are present on both the Argentine and Chilean side of the border.
AUSTRALIA: Since September 2001, Australia has co-chaired the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction. It has helped other States Parties destroy stockpiled antipersonnel mines. The Australian government and the Australian Network of the ICBL continued to work collaboratively to promote universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty, particularly in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Australia provided A$12 million (US$6.4 million) in mine action funding for financial year 2001-2002.
AUSTRIA: Austria continued to play an important role in promoting universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. In September 2001, Austria was named as co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention. While mine action funding had doubled in 2000, it returned in 2001 to its previous level of ATS 13.7 million (about $888,000). Considerable funding has been pledged in 2002 for mine action in Afghanistan.
BANGLADESH: Bangladesh established a National Committee on implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty in August 2001. As of February 2002, a Bangladesh Army battalion was engaged in demining in Ethiopia as part of the UN peacekeeping mission. In May 2002, Bangladesh attended the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings for the first time. It has not submitted its initial Article 7 Report, due 28 August 2001.
BELGIUM: Belgium continued to play a leading role in promoting the universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. Belgium was approved by States Parties to preside over the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in September 2002. Belgium’s funding for mine action decreased in 2001.
BENIN: In March 2002, Benin established an interministerial commission to draft Mine Ban Treaty implementing legislation. France provided financial support for the establishment of a regional mine clearance training center in Benin.
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: A new demining law was approved in February 2002. Donors provided $16.6 million in mine action funding in 2001. Demining operations cleared 5.5 to 6 million square meters of land in 2001, and 73.5 million square meters of land were surveyed. A national Landmine Impact Survey is expected to start in November 2002. There were 87 mine and UXO casualties in 2001, a reduction from 2000.
BRAZIL: On 31 October 2001, Brazil enacted national implementation legislation, Law 10.300. After September 2001, Brazil began its stockpile destruction program and destroyed 13,194 mines by the end of the year. The target for completion is July 2002. Brazil is retaining 16,545 antipersonnel mines for training, the highest number of any State Party. Brazil has made important interpretive statements on antivehicle mines with antihandling devices, on joint military operations with non-State Parties, and on foreign stockpiling and transit of antipersonnel mines.
BULGARIA: An agreement with Turkey on the non-use of antipersonnel mines and their removal from their common border areas entered into force on 1 May 2002. Bulgaria reported the completion of decommissioning of antipersonnel mine production facilities. Bulgaria has provided detailed information to Landmine Monitor on its antivehicle mine stockpile and states that none of the mines it possesses are inconsistent with the Mine Ban Treaty.
BURKINA FASO: Burkina Faso adopted a decree to incorporate the Mine Ban Treaty into domestic law on 2 May 2001. Although Burkina Faso possesses no stockpiles, it reserves the right to retain a maximum number of 500 antipersonnel mines.
CAMBODIA: The Cambodia Landmine Impact Survey was completed in April 2002 and revealed that nearly half of all villages are either known or suspected to be contaminated by mines or UXO. In 2001, a total of 21.8 million square meters of land was cleared, including 29,358 antipersonnel mines. In 2001, there were 813 mine and UXO casualties. Thousands of stockpiled mines continue to be discovered and destroyed.
CANADA: Canada continued to play a key leadership role in promoting universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It co-organized regional conferences in Malaysia, Thailand, and Tunisia. It facilitated stockpile destruction in a number of countries. It has served as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and coordinated the Universalization Contact Group. Government contributions to mine action programs rose significantly to C$27.7 million (US$17.9 million) in its fiscal year 2001/2002.
CHAD: The results of the Landmine Impact Survey completed in May 2001 were published, revealing that a greater proportion of communities are severely impacted than initially projected, and their geographic distribution is unexpectedly wide. The LIS identified 417 contaminated areas covering a total of 1,801 million square meters of land; mines and UXO affect 249 communities, and a total of 284,435 persons. Chad, for the first time, revealed that it has a stockpile of 2,803 mines. It reported having destroyed 1,210 mines in June 2001 and April 2002. Chad submitted its initial Article 7 Report, dated 12 December 2001, as well as a follow-up report, dated 29 April 2002.
CHILE: Chile ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 10 September 2001. The Chilean Army destroyed 14,000 stockpiled antipersonnel mines on 13 September 2001. Chile has announced that 50 percent of its stockpile will be destroyed by August 2002, and the rest by the end of 2003. A National Demining Commission has been established. Landmine Monitor field research has revealed problems with inadequate fencing and warning signs for minefields in some areas.
COLOMBIA: On 25 July 2002, national implementation legislation, including penal sanctions, came into effect. On 8 October 2001, the government established a commission (CINAMA) to coordinate mine action and oversee implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. The government’s Antipersonnel Mine Observatory, within the Program for the Prevention of Antipersonnel Mine Accidents and Victim Assistance, became operational in 2001. On 15 March 2002, Colombia submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report. Colombia reported a stockpile of 20,312 landmines. Colombia is developing a National Plan for stockpile destruction and mine clearance and expects clearance to take 20 years. Officials have stated that Army minefields around strategic sites will not be cleared while the war continues. At least 256 of Colombia’s 1,097 municipalities in 28 of the 31 departments in the country are believed to be mine-affected. The government reports increased use of antipersonnel mines by non-State actors, including FARC, ELN, and AUC. Mine casualties rose as the conflict intensified. In the first ten months of 2001, 201 new landmine casualties were recorded; resulting in an average of approximately two casualties every three days. In September 2001, at the Third Meeting of States Parties, Colombia was named as the co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance.
REPUBLIC OF CONGO: The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for the Republic of Congo on 1 November 2001. The Republic of Congo has reported a stockpile of 5,092 landmines, 400 of which it will retain for training purposes.
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: The Democratic Republic of Congo acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 2 May 2002. On 2-3 May 2002, the government hosted an international workshop on the Mine Ban Treaty and mine action in the DRC. Landmine Monitor has received an admission of on-going use of antipersonnel mines by the rebel Congolese Rally for Democracy, and allegations of use by Burundian forces. Landmine Monitor is not aware of any allegations of use of antipersonnel mines by DRC government forces in the reporting period. A Mine Action Coordination Center was established in February 2002. As of July 2002, Handicap International Belgium was the only agency conducting humanitarian mine clearance or providing mine risk education in the DRC.
COSTA RICA: The demining program in Costa Rica has suffered a serious financial crisis since December 2001, which has resulted in a suspension of operations. National implementation legislation, “Prohibition of Antipersonnel Mines” took effect on 17 April 2002. Costa Rica submitted its first Article 7 Report, which confirmed that Costa Rica has no stockpile of antipersonnel mines. The OAS expects to complete a national impact survey in August 2002.
CROATIA: In 2001, 56,028 stockpiled antipersonnel mines were destroyed, leaving a total of 132,048 mines. Croatia has served as the co-chair of the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction since September 2001. During 2001, 42.3 million square meters of land were handed over to communities for use, including 13.6 million through demining and 28.7 million through survey reduction. CROMAC reports that in 2001 it spent more than $26 million on mine action, an increase of nearly one-quarter. In 2001, there were 34 mine and UXO casualties, including nine fatalities, while in the first six months of 2002 there were 13 mine casualties, including two deminers.
CZECH REPUBLIC: The Czech Republic completed the destruction of its stockpile of more than 360,000 antipersonnel mines in June 2001. In October 2001, an inter-ministerial working group was established to address issues related to the Mine Ban Treaty and the CCW. Responding to an incident reported in Landmine Monitor Report 2001, the Czech Republic has stated that it does not consider use of antivehicle mines with tripwires to be a violation of the Mine Ban Treaty.
DJIBOUTI: Djibouti is the only State Party with a 1 March 2003 stockpile destruction deadline that has not begun destruction and has not submitted an Article 7 Report or otherwise revealed information about its stockpile or destruction program. A National Commission for Demining, responsible for all aspects of treaty implementation, is reportedly being established. After May 2001, the National Army started mine clearance and marking operations in the northern districts. In September, the deminers conducted a level one survey in the same area.
ECUADOR: Ecuador completed stockpile destruction on 11 September 2001. It destroyed a total of 260,302 antipersonnel mines. It revised the number of mines retained for training purposes from 16,000 to 4,000. Several mine impact surveys are reportedly underway.
EL SALVADOR: Legislation to implement the Mine Ban Treaty domestically has been drafted. El Salvador submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report on 31 August 2001 and an annual updated report on 29 April 2002. El Salvador reported the destruction of 1,291 stockpiled antipersonnel mines in 2000, leaving 5,344 in stock. In November 2001, an interagency committee on the Mine Ban Treaty was established, with responsibility for liaising with national and international organizations on demining and mine survivor rehabilitation.
ERITREA: Eritrea acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 27 August 2001, and it entered into force on 1 February 2002. Two NGOs carried out surveys in 2001, and initial preparations for a Landmine Impact Survey began in March 2002. Mine clearance and mine risk education activities increased greatly. The UNMEE MACC reported that from November 2000 through December 2001, over 10 million square meters of land and 989 kilometers of roads were cleared, destroying more than 1,865 mines. More than 400 Eritreans were trained as deminers in 2001. There were 154 new landmine/UXO casualties reported in Eritrea in 2001, nearly half in May-July as refugees and IDPs began returning home.
FRANCE: France has continued its prominent role in addressing Mine Ban Treaty universalization and compliance issues. In September 2001, France became co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance. CNEMA has reported new concerns about certain French antivehicle mines that may function as antipersonnel mines. France provided about $2.7 million for mine action programs in 2001, an increase from the previous year.
GERMANY: In 2001, Germany provided about €13.7 million ($12.3 million) in mine action funding. For 2002, it has budgeted more than €17 million ($15.3 million) for mine action. Germany has clarified its positions on joint military operations with non-signatories to the Mine Ban Treaty, and on US stockpiling and transit of antipersonnel mines in Germany. Initiatives and actions regarding a ban or restrictions on antivehicle mines are increasing.
GUATEMALA: In 2001, the Army cleared an area covering 7,749 square meters. In 2001, the Association of Volunteer Firefighters conducted mine risk education in six communities in San Marcos department, which reached an estimated 80,000 people.
GUINEA-BISSAU: The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Guinea-Bissau on 1 November 2001. In March 2002, an inventory of antipersonnel mines was carried out, revealing a stockpile of 4,997 mines. In September 2001, a National Commission for Humanitarian Demining was formally established. Between November 2000 and April 2002, 175,000 square meters of land were cleared. Guinea-Bissau's initial Article 7 Report, due by 30 April 2002, has not yet been submitted.
HONDURAS: Clearance operations, originally targeted for completion in 2001, are now scheduled to be completed by the end of 2002. In April 2002, Honduras stated that the country had met 98.59 percent of its mine clearance objectives. Since September 2001, Honduras has served as co-chair of the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration.
HUNGARY: There is increasing information about the considerable quantities of unexploded ordnance, including mines, from the Second World War and later Soviet occupation uncovered each year. Hungary has a landmine alternative under development. Hungary has not confirmed whether it has completed the destruction of its UKA-63 antivehicle mines with tilt rod fuzes, which function like antipersonnel mines.
ITALY: As of May 2002, only 460,000 antipersonnel mines from an original stockpile of 7.1 million remained to be destroyed. Italy provided about €5.6 million ($5 million) to mine action in 2001, an increase from 2000. The implementation regulation for the new Trust Fund for Humanitarian Demining was adopted on 17 December 2001. The National Committee for Humanitarian Mine Action was reconvened in March 2002.
JAPAN: Japanese mine action funding fell about 40 percent in 2001, to 741 million Japanese Yen (US$6.98 million). In January 2002, Japan pledged $19.22 million in emergency funds for mine action activities in Afghanistan. Japan has destroyed 605,040 antipersonnel mines, including 382,680 between March 2001 and February 2002.
JORDAN: Jordan destroyed another 10,000 stockpiled antipersonnel mines in April 2002. Since the national demining program began in 1993, 116 minefields containing 84,157 mines and covering 8 million square meters of land have been cleared.
KENYA: Kenya submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report on 27 December 2001. It declared it has a total of 38,774 antipersonnel mines, some 3,000 of which will be retained for training. In September 2001, Kenya was chosen as co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance. Kenya’s military is involved in the UN demining operation along the Eritrea/Ethiopia border.
MACEDONIA (FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF): As of June 2002, FYROM had not started destruction of its stockpile of 42,871 antipersonnel mines, but had a plan in place to complete destruction before the 1 March 2003 deadline. FYROM decided to retain 4,000 mines for training instead of 50. The MACC in Kosovo and the ICRC conducted mine assessment missions to FYROM in 2001. In September 2001, the UNMAS opened a Mine Action Office in Skopje. Two Bosnia and Herzegovina NGOs cleared 1.7 million square meters of land in the FYROM in the last three months of 2001. The ICRC developed a mine/UXO awareness program in collaboration with the Macedonian Red Cross. Rebel NLA forces have stated that they have used and will continue to use mines, though there are no confirmed instances of new use in this reporting period. Data compiled from media reports indicates at least 28 deaths and 20 injuries from mines and UXO in 2001.
MAURITANIA: The Mines Advisory Group carried out a mine assessment mission in December 2001, and UNMAS conducted an assessment in 2002. Mauritania submitted its first Article 7 Report, dated 20 June 2001, and its annual update on 12 June 2002. Mauritania reports a stockpile of 5,728 mines, all of which will be retained.
MAURITIUS: Mauritius submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report on 20 May 2002, indicating that the Special Mobile Force of the Mauritius Police Force possesses 93 non-metallic antipersonnel mines.
MOLDOVA: Moldova submitted its initial Article 7 Report on 8 April 2002, declaring a stockpile of 12,121 antipersonnel mines. Moldova and NATO signed an agreement in June 2001 for assistance in the destruction of the mine stockpile, which should be completed in 2002.
MOZAMBIQUE: The final conclusions of the Mozambique Landmine Impact Survey were published in September 2001. Some 791 communities affected by 1,374 suspected mined areas were identified. At the end of 2001, the National Demining Institute produced its first Five Year National Mine Action Plan (2002-2006). In September 2001, Mozambique destroyed its first 500 stockpiled antipersonnel mines. The remaining 37,318 mines must be destroyed before 1 March 2003. In 2001, 60 mine incidents were reported, resulting in 80 casualties.
NAMIBIA: In 2001, at least nine people were killed and 41 injured in reported mine/UXO incidents, a significant decrease from the previous year. The International Committee of the Red Cross initiated a new mine risk education project in Namibia in 2002. Namibia has not submitted its initial Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, which was due by 28 August 1999.
THE NETHERLANDS: The Netherlands continued to play a leadership role in promoting universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. The Netherlands served as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance until September 2001. The Netherlands is coordinating work on explosive remnants of war in the CCW. In 2001, the Netherlands contributed €15.5 million (about $13.9 million) to mine action.
NICARAGUA: From 18 to 21 September 2001, Nicaragua hosted the Third Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty. As President of the Third Meeting of States Parties, Nicaragua has also served as Chair of the Coordinating Committee since September 2001. From September 2000 until September 2001, Nicaragua served as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance. Nicaragua has destroyed 115,000 stockpiled antipersonnel mines and plans to destroy the remaining 18,313 mines by September 2002. As of June 2002, Nicaragua had cleared more than 2.5 million square meters of land and 78,374 mines. Nicaragua now expects to complete mine clearance in 2005, not 2004 as previously estimated.
NORWAY: Norway continued to play a key leadership role in promoting full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty and developing the intersessional work program. Norway served as President of the Second Meeting of States Parties until September 2001 and co-chair of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention since September 2001. Financial contributions to mine action in 2001 totaled NOK176.85 million ($19.65 million).
PERÚ: Perú has played a leadership role in the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional work program, and in promotion of full implementation of the treaty. Perú served as co-chair of the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Mine Clearance until September 2001 and since then, has served as co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation. In September 2001, Perú completed destruction of its stockpiled antipersonnel mines. It reduced the number of mines retained for training to 4,024, and destroyed a total of 322,892 mines. In June 2002, the Peruvian Army completed mine clearance along 18 kilometers of the Zarumilla Canal on the border with Ecuador.
PHILIPPINES: Two rebel groups continued to use antipersonnel mines – the New People’s Army and Abu Sayyaf. The government recovered a stockpile of homemade mines apparently belonging to a faction of the Moro National Liberation Front; this was the first landmine-related incident involving the MNLF since 1996. Another rebel group, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, re-committed in writing to a total ban on antipersonnel mines in April 2002; however, there continued to be allegations of MILF use of mines in 2001 and 2002.
PORTUGAL: Portugal corrected its stockpile numbers, reporting that at the end of 2001, it had 231,781 antipersonnel mines in stockpiles, or 40,629 less than previously reported. Destruction began in 2002, and as of May, 36,654 mines had been destroyed. Portugal also reported that the number of mines retained for permitted purposes would be reduced to 1,115. In February 2002, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs decided that new implementation legislation is not needed because the Portuguese penal code already criminalizes the prohibited activities.
QATAR: In 2002, Qatar’s Foreign Minister confirmed to the ICBL that Qatari Armed Forces do not use antipersonnel mines, and have no stockpile of mines except for training. Qatar has not said if U.S. mines stored in Qatar must be removed before its 1 April 2003 deadline for stockpile destruction. Qatar has not yet submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report, due by 27 September 1999.
ROMANIA: In September 2001, Romania was chosen co-rapporteur of the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction. Romania began its own stockpile destruction in August 2001 and by April 2002 reported the destruction of 130,474 antipersonnel mines. It expects to complete stockpile destruction by 2004, a year in advance of its deadline.
RWANDA: Some 20 of the more than 35 mined areas in the country have been cleared; in 2001, 9,712 square meters of land were cleared, including 3,648 mines and UXO. Rwanda submitted its first Article 7 transparency report, indicating that it has no stockpile of antipersonnel mines. RCD-Goma rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with whom the Rwandan military cooperates closely, have admitted ongoing mine use.
SENEGAL: In 2001, 54 new landmine/UXO casualties were reported, a small decrease from the previous year. No systematic demining has occurred, although the Army engages in some mine clearance. From mid-2000 to mid-2001, Handicap International’s mine risk education program reached the population in 680 of 776 accessible villages, and benefited 59,583 school children.
SEYCHELLES: Domestic implementation legislation had been drafted and is awaiting approval by the Cabinet of Ministers. Seychelles has not yet submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report, which was due in May 2001.
SLOVAK REPUBLIC: Slovakia served as the co-chair of the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction until September 2001. Six mine clearance teams from Slovakia are operating with the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
SLOVENIA: By 22 May 2002, Slovenia had destroyed 121,919 antipersonnel mines, and had a total of 46,979 remaining to be destroyed. Domestic implementation legislation was being examined by ministries as of May 2002. In 2001, Slovenia contributed US$418,373 to the ITF. In 2001, the ITF raised a total of $20.5 million, a significant decrease from 2000.
SOUTH AFRICA: South Africa has continued to play a leading role in the intersessional work program of the Mine Ban Treaty and was instrumental in the establishment of the treaty’s Implementation Support Unit. It has also been a leader in promoting universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty in Africa.
SPAIN: Spain opened an International Demining Training Center, and conducted two courses for Lebanese and Central American participants. Mine action funding in 2001 totaled €741,357 ($667,221). Spain sent three demining teams to Afghanistan. In September 2001, Parliament approved a “green paper” intended to increase the funding for mine action.
SWEDEN: Sweden completed the destruction of its antipersonnel mine stockpile in December 2001. Sweden is retaining 13,948 antipersonnel mines for permitted purposes, the second highest number of any State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. Mine action funding in 2001 totaled SEK91.6 million ($8.5 million), an increase from 2000. In November 2001, Sweden finalized its new policy guidelines on mine action funding.
SWITZERLAND: In 2001, Switzerland provided mine action funding totaling US$8.4 million. In September 2001, Switzerland was chosen as co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction. The Fourth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty will be held in Geneva in September 2002.
TAJIKISTAN: Although the United Nations records that Tajikistan acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 12 October 1999, it is not clear that Tajikistan considers itself a State Party formally bound by the treaty. Russia has reconfirmed that it has laid antipersonnel mines inside Tajikistan, reportedly with the consent of the Tajik government. Following the completion in July 2001 of a needs assessment, the Red Crescent Society of Tajikistan has initiated a mine risk education program with the help of the ICRC. Uzbek-laid antipersonnel mines continued to kill and injure civilians and livestock in Tajikistan in 2001.
TANZANIA: Landmine victims continued to arrive in Tanzania refugee camps from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Tanzania has not submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report, which was due on 28 October 2001.
THAILAND: The Thailand Mine Action Center is revising its master plan for the period 2002-2006 based on the results of the Landmine Impact Survey completed in May 2001. As of June 2002, TMAC had cleared 4.4 million square meters of land. As of July 2002, Thailand had destroyed 266,245 antipersonnel mines from stockpiles, including 186,899 since June 2001. Thailand became co-chair of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention in September 2001. Thailand has offered to host the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in 2003. A Regional Conference on Victim Assistance was held in Bangkok on 6-8 November 2001. On 13-15 May 2002, Thailand hosted the Regional Seminar on Landmines in Southeast Asia.
TUNISIA: In January 2002, the government hosted a regional seminar on the Mine Ban Treaty in North Africa. The Army destroyed 1,000 stockpiled antipersonnel mines as part of the event. Tunisia has not submitted Article 7 Reports in 2001 or 2002.
TURKMENISTAN: Turkmenistan submitted its initial Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 transparency report in November 2001. It reported the destruction of more than 400,000 antipersonnel mines since 1997, and a remaining stockpile of 761,782 mines. It requested a seven-year extension of its deadline for stockpile destruction, but such an extension is not permitted under the Mine Ban Treaty. Turkmenistan subsequently indicated it intended to meet the deadline of 1 March 2003.
UGANDA: Uganda has denied allegations of use of mines in the DR Congo in 2000, and has reportedly been conducting an investigation, in a spirit of cooperation. Uganda invited foreign military attaches to inspect an alleged mine production facility, and they concluded no production existed. Uganda submitted its initial Article 7 Report in May 2002, which provided the first public details on a stockpile of 6,782 antipersonnel mines. Uganda will retain 2,400 of the mines for training purposes. Mine Risk Education is underway in the northern districts of Gulu, Kitgum and Pader, and in Kasese district in western Uganda. There continue to be new mine casualties.
UNITED KINGDOM: Mine action funding for 2001/2002 totaled GB£12 million, a decrease from GB£16 million in 2000/2001. In April 2002, the UK company PW Defence Ltd is alleged to have offered to supply 500 antipersonnel mines in contravention of national law and the Mine Ban Treaty. The same month, the State-owned Pakistan Ordnance Factories is alleged to have offered two types of antipersonnel mines for sale in the UK. In January 2002, the UK Ministry of Defence simulated a Mine Ban Treaty Article 8 investigation into hypothetical breaches of the treaty in the UK.
URUGUAY: Uruguay ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 7 June 2001 and the treaty entered into force on 1 December 2001. Uruguay submitted its first Article 7 Report on 23 April 2002. Uruguay destroyed 432 antipersonnel mines from May 2000 to June 2002, leaving 1,728 in stock. Uruguayan Army mine clearance experts are serving in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
VENEZUELA: Landmine Monitor verified the presence of a small minefield at a Navy base near the Colombian border. Venezuela has not publicly acknowledged having landmines on its territory. As of July 2002, Venezuela had not yet submitted its initial Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 transparency report, due by 29 March 2000. Landmine Monitor has been told that Venezuela stockpiles approximately 40,000 antipersonnel mines. In December 2001, a media report indicated that a Colombian guerrilla group, EPLA, had used explosive devices inside Venezuela.
YEMEN: On 27 April 2002, Yemen destroyed the last 8,674 of its stockpiled antipersonnel mines. Between May 2001 to February 2002, 2.2 million square meters of land were cleared of mines and UXO. Yemen has served as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance since September 2001.
ZAMBIA: The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Zambia on 1 August 2001. Zambia is incorporating the Mine Ban Treaty’s provisions into domestic law. Zambia for the first time revealed it has a stockpile of 6,691 mines, all of which will be retained “for training only.” The Zambian Mine Action Center was established in August 2001, and training was provided for management, survey, mine risk education, and clearance teams. Mine clearance operations began in May 2002. Zambia submitted its initial Article 7 Report on 31 August 2001, months before it was due.
ZIMBABWE: In December 2001, it was announced that Zimbabwe's army had completed demining 1.8 million square meters of land around the main border crossing with Mozambique. In 2002, a National Authority on Mine Action was formed to coordinate activities of mine victims and other landmine-related activities. In 2001, five new landmine casualties were reported. Zimbabwe clarified its position regarding possible joint military operations involving use of antipersonnel mines.
BURUNDI: There continue to be allegations of use of antipersonnel mines by Burundian troops both inside Burundi and in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Landmine Monitor has not been able to corroborate such allegations, or to determine if rebel or government forces are responsible for ongoing mine use. The government strongly denies any use of mines, and has again invited an observer mission to establish facts. Burundi declared a stockpile of 1,200 antipersonnel mines.
CYPRUS: In January 2002, the government of Cyprus introduced a bill to Parliament calling for early approval and ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty. Cyprus reports that it has cleared and destroyed more that 11,000 mines during the last two years. It has announced plans to clear the heavily-mined buffer zone that divides the island, starting unilaterally if necessary.
ETHIOPIA: A national Landmine Impact Survey was initiated in April 2002. While no demining has started in Ethiopia, two demining companies have been trained, and some survey work has been carried out since February 2002. During 2001, nearly 200,000 people received some form of mine risk education. In April 2002, Ethiopia provided to the UN detailed maps of mines its forces laid in Eritrea during the border conflict. In 2001, there were at least 71 new landmine/UXO casualties, a significant decrease from the previous year.
GREECE: On 19 March 2002, the Greek parliament voted unanimously in favor of ratifying the Mine Ban Treaty. The instrument of ratification will be deposited at the same time as Turkey’s instrument of accession. Greece is believed to hold a stockpile of 1.25 million antipersonnel mines. Greece reported that clearance of all minefields on the Greek-Bulgarian border was completed in December 2001, and included the destruction of 25,000 antipersonnel and antivehicle mines. Illegal immigrants crossing into Greece continue to fall victim to landmines.
INDONESIA: Indonesia has progressed toward ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty. It established a National Ad-Hoc Working Group on the Mine Ban Treaty. In May 2002, Indonesia for the first time revealed that it has a stockpile of 16,000 antipersonnel mines.
LITHUANIA: In July 2002, Lithuania submitted, on a voluntary basis, an Article 7 transparency report as an indication of the government’s commitment to meet the obligations of the Mine Ban Treaty. Lithuania has reported a stockpile of 8,091 antipersonnel mines, for training purposes.
POLAND: Poland has participated in the Mine Ban Treaty process, but has taken no concrete steps toward ratification. Ministry of Defense officials have estimated the cost of destruction of Poland’s antipersonnel mine stockpile as “a few million Polish Zloty,” and have informally estimated the size at more than one million. The Engineering Corps identified the types of antipersonnel mines stockpiled. Poland spent around $6 million on domestic mine clearance and explosive ordnance disposal in 2001, destroying 3,842 mines and 45,000 items of unexploded ordnance. In March 2002, 39 deminers were sent to Afghanistan.
SUDAN: After the signing a cease-fire agreement for the Nuba Mountains area, a series of new mine action projects were initiated. A number of assessments were carried out in both government- and rebel-controlled areas. The United States deployed part of its quick reaction demining force to clear mines from roads in the Nuba Mountains for a five-week period. The Sudan Landmine Information and Response Initiative was formed in 2001. Between April 2001 and March 2002, Operation Save Innocent Lives cleared a total of 329 miles of road and 263,093 square meters of land. Both the government and the SPLA have renewed pledges not to use antipersonnel mines, although there are still unconfirmed allegations of use by both sides.
UKRAINE: In December 2001, Ukraine and NATO signed a framework agreement for destruction of Ukraine’s PMN mines. In 2001, Ukrainian deminers cleared 15,500 mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO), most left from World War II.
AFGHANISTAN: Afghanistan has experienced dramatic political, military, and humanitarian changes. The cabinet approved Afghanistan’s accession to the Mine Ban Treaty on 29 July 2002 and the following day the Minister of Foreign Affairs signed the instrument of accession on behalf of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan.
Mine action operations were virtually brought to a halt following 11 September 2001. The mine action infrastructure suffered greatly during the subsequent military conflict, as some warring factions looted offices, seized vehicles and equipment, and assaulted local staff. Four deminers and two mine detection dogs were killed in errant U.S. air strikes. Military operations created additional threats to the population, especially unexploded U.S. cluster bomblets and ammunition scattered from storage depots hit by air strikes, as well as newly laid mines and booby-traps by Northern Alliance, Taliban, and Al-Qaeda fighters.
A funding shortfall for the mine action program in Afghanistan prior to 11 September 2001 had threatened to again curtail mine action operations. But since October 2001, about $64 million has been pledged to mine action in Afghanistan. By March 2002, mine clearance, mine survey, and mine risk education operations had returned to earlier levels, and have since expanded beyond 2001 levels.
In 2001, mine action NGOs surveyed approximately 14.7 million square meters of mined areas and 80.8 million square meters of former battlefield area, and cleared nearly 15.6 million square meters of mined area and 81.2 million square meters of former battlefields. Nearly 730,000 civilians received mine risk education. A total of 16,147 antipersonnel mines, 1,154 antivehicle mines, and 328,398 UXO were destroyed. In all of these activities, 95 to 99 percent of the actions were completed prior to 11 September 2001.
The ICRC recorded 1,368 new landmine and UXO casualties in Afghanistan in 2001, but that number is not comprehensive.
AZERBAIJAN: A general survey was carried out in 11 districts and found 50 million square meters of land to be affected by mines and unexploded ordnance; 84 minefields were identified and marked. With UNDP assistance, an Azeri National Strategic Plan for mine action was adopted in October 2001.
BELARUS: Belarus has reiterated its willingness to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty as soon as it has received the necessary assistance to enable it to destroy its stockpile of nearly 4.6 million antipersonnel mines. In 2001, Belarus destroyed 3,276 stockpiled mines, and cleared 3.5 million square meters of land, including 11,926 UXO and 65 antipersonnel mines. In March 2002, Canada donated 20 mine detectors to Belarus—the first time the country has received international assistance for its mine and UXO clearance.
BURMA (MYANMAR): Myanmar’s military has continued laying landmines inside the country and along its borders with Thailand. As part of a new plan to “fence the country,” the Coastal Region Command Headquarters gave orders to its troops from Tenasserim division to lay mines along the Thai-Burma border. Three rebel groups, not previously identified as mine users, were discovered using landmines in 2002: Pao People’s Liberation Front, All Burma Muslim Union and Wa National Army. Thirteen rebel groups are now using mines.
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: In June 2002, the President signed the law to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty. The CAR publicly stated for the first time that it has a small stockpile of antipersonnel mines for training purposes, but that it has never used, produced, or exported mines.
EGYPT: In May 2001, the Prime Minister announced that Egypt was launching a national program for the development of the northwest coast, including demining. The national committee on landmines has not met since May 2001. The United States conducted training of Egyptian deminers between May and August 2001. Eleven new mine or UXO casualties were reported in 2001.
FINLAND: Finland’s Parliament approved the goal of adhering to the Mine Ban Treaty by 2006. Finland donated approximately $4.5 million to mine action programs in 2001. In addition, it had mechanical mine clearance projects in Cambodia, Mozambique, and Kosovo during the reporting period.
GEORGIA: A Defense Ministry official told Landmine Monitor that Georgian Armed Forces laid antipersonnel mines in several passes in the Kodori gorge in 2001. The government has denied this. There were reports of private armed groups from Georgia laying antipersonnel mines in Abkhazia. Russia began the process of destroying its obsolete landmine stocks in Georgia. According to the ICBL Georgian Committee, in 2001 there were 98 new landmine/UXO casualties in Georgia.
INDIA: In December 2001, India began laying antipersonnel and antivehicle mines along its 1,800-mile border with Pakistan. This is apparently one of the largest mine-laying operations anywhere in the world in years. There have been numerous reports of civilian casualties, raising concerns about the effectiveness of the measures taken to protect civilians, as required by CCW Amended Protocol II. There is also concern about possible Indian use of non-detectable mines. There were at least 332 new mine casualties reported in 2001, and another 180 mine casualties reported between 1 January and 17 June 2002. India’s Ambassador Rakesh Sood chaired the key Main Committee One during the Second CCW Review Conference and is now chair of the Group of Governmental Experts to consider the issues of explosives remnants of war and antivehicle mines.
IRAN: Although Iran declared an export moratorium in 1997, mine clearance organizations in Afghanistan are encountering numerous Iranian mines, dated 1999 and 2000. Also, in early January 2002, the Israeli military seized Iranian-produced antipersonnel mines on a ship reportedly destined to Palestine. According to an Iranian military official, from March 2001 to March 2002, 70 million square meters of land was cleared, including more than 3.2 million antipersonnel mines, 914,000 antitank mines and 4,236 UXO. A new joint project with UNDP is aimed at establishing and implementing an integrated national mine action program.
ISRAEL: In June 2002, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon stated his strong opposition to laying mines along a new fence being constructed on the West Bank. Israel submitted its initial annual report for CCW Amended Protocol II, the first time Israel has made detailed mine related information available to the international community.
REPUBLIC OF KOREA: In 2001 the ROK cleared about 4,700 landmines from around military bases in the rear area. It also cleared 840 mines and 850,000 square meters of land in the inter-Korean transportation routes south of the DMZ. The ROK ratified CCW Amended Protocol II on 9 May 2001. Landmine Monitor’s Asia-Pacific researchers held their regional meeting in Seoul in October 2001. Information came to light that nearly half of the 1.1 million US “dumb” mines for fighting in Korea are stored in the US, and that the US plans to transfer more than 560,000 mines already stored in South Korea to ROK forces at the outset of conflict.
KUWAIT: Ministry of Defense sources told Landmine Monitor that Kuwait does not use landmines. Officials stated that the 45,845 antipersonnel mines Kuwait removed from the ground following the Gulf War and then stored for a period, have now been destroyed. Demining and quality assurance surveys of previously cleared land continue.
KYRGYZSTAN: In June 2001, the Kyrgyz government issued a decree regarding mine clearance and mine awareness. Kyrgyzstan has reported the clearance of 320,000 square meters of land on the Uzbek border; the demining was declared illegal by Uzbekistan. Subsequently, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan agreed that new mine-laying in certain regions would not be allowed. The Ministry of Emergency Situations began conducting mine awareness programs among high-risk populations in the affected areas.
LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC: In 2001, 8.74 million square meters of land were cleared in nine provinces. Mine risk education was provided to an estimated 182,000 people in 766 villages. According to UXO LAO records, 35 people were killed and 87 injured by UXO or mines in 2001.
LEBANON: The Lebanese Army reported that the number of identified mined areas was 2,146 as of February 2002, nearly double the number reported in May 2001. In November 2001, an International Support Group was established to coordinate mine action donor support in Lebanon. The United Arab Emirates has begun awarding mine action contracts with the $50 million pledged to Lebanon in May 2001. Other donors contributed more than $12 million to mine action in 2001. In 2001, the Lebanese Army cleared more than 1.5 million square meters of land; NGOs and foreign armies cleared additional land. UNIFIL completed a technical survey in South Lebanon in 2002. Mines Advisory Group began a national Landmine Impact Survey in March 2002. In 2001, 90 new mine/UXO casualties were recorded, a decrease from 113 casualties in 2000.
NEPAL: The use of mines by the Maoist United People’s Front has increased with the escalation of the conflict. Mine incidents have now been reported in 71 of 75 districts, compared to reported incidents in 37 districts last year. According to information collected by the Nepal Campaign to Ban Landmines, in 2001, 214 people were killed and 210 injured in 148 landmine and IED incidents. There continue to be serious indicators that government forces, both the police and the army, are using antipersonnel mines.
PAKISTAN: As part of the military buildup since December 2001, both Pakistan and India have emplaced large numbers of antipersonnel mines along their common border. Reports of civilian casualties in Pakistan following the recent mine-laying call into question the effectiveness of the measures taken to protect civilians. In April 2002, Pakistan Ordnance Factories is alleged to have offered two types of antipersonnel mines for sale in the United Kingdom. Pakistan has now acknowledged that it has started producing both new detectable hand-emplaced antipersonnel mines and new remotely-delivered mines. In 2001, there were 92 new mine casualties recorded, including 36 children, in Pakistan.
SAUDI ARABIA: Saudi officials confirmed for the first time that the country stockpiles antipersonnel mines. They also confirmed that the United States also stockpiles mines in Saudi Arabia, but stated that the U.S. cannot use them on Saudi territory.
SOMALIA: Landmines apparently continue to be used during the fighting among the many militias. Instability and conflict have impeded the establishment of a Mine Action Program and the start of mine action activities.
SRI LANKA: There have been no reports of new use of mines by either government or rebel forces since December 2001. A formal cease-fire agreement came into force on 23 February 2002. In January 2002, for the first time, a leader of the LTTE rebels expressed support for a ban on antipersonnel mines. Sri Lanka’s Defense Secretary has estimated that there are some 700,000 mines in the ground. The cease-fire is finally enabling significant mine action activities, but there is great concern about mine dangers to displaced persons as they begin to return home. In March 2002, the World Bank committed US$1 million for a new UNDP-led mine action project. UNICEF has resumed mine risk education programs in Jaffna. It would appear that reported new mine casualties increased during 2001, to more than 300.
TURKEY: Turkey is in the final stages of domestic approval of accession to the Mine Ban Treaty. In March 2002, Turkey renewed its export moratorium indefinitely. Turkey reported that it had destroyed 10,638 mines from various border regions by the end of 2001. An agreement with Bulgaria on the non-use and removal of antipersonnel mines from common border areas entered into force on 1 May 2002. The government accused the PKK of ongoing use of antipersonnel mines. The PKK has denied the allegations and stated its willingness to ban antipersonnel mines. According to the Turkish Human Rights Foundation, landmines and UXO killed 16 people and injured 33 others in 2001.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: The Bush Administration has been reviewing its landmine policy since June 2001. The Department of Defense recommended in November 2001 that the U.S. abandon its commitment to join the Mine Ban Treaty in 2006 and also abandon some parts of the program to develop alternatives to landmines. Funding for international humanitarian mine action programs for fiscal year 2001 was $81.8 million, the largest amount of any single country, but a significant decrease from the previous year. Mines killed one and wounded six U.S. military personnel in Afghanistan.
UZBEKISTAN: Uzbekistan continued laying mines on its border with Tajikistan at least until June 2001. Uzbekistan declared demining by Kyrgyzstan in disputed border areas illegal. Subsequently, Uzbek and Kyrgyz authorities agreed that new mine laying in certain regions would not be allowed. In 2001, there were at least 28 new landmine casualties in Uzbekistan.
VIETNAM: Mine action activities by non-governmental organizations continue to expand, including outside of Quang Tri province for the first time. The national Landmine/UXO Impact Survey has not yet begun.
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has initiated the process to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty. FRY reported destruction of 90,000 stockpiled antipersonnel mines from April 2001-May 2002, and has called for assistance to deal with future stockpile destruction and mine clearance. FRY established a mine action center in Belgrade in April 2002.
ABKHAZIA: In 2001, Abkhazian authorities for the first time told Landmine Monitor that Abkhazian soldiers are using antipersonnel mines. Abkhazia maintains that both Abkhazian and Georgian forces used landmines in the Kodor Valley in October 2001. Private armed groups from Georgia continued to cross into Abkhazia and lay antipersonnel mines. From 1998 through February 2002, HALO Trust cleared a total of 945,868 square meters of land. The most important elements of Abkhazia’s infrastructure have been demined. As of March 2002, mine awareness education had been provided to about 40,000 people in Abkhazia.
CHECHNYA: Russian and Chechen forces continued to use antipersonnel mines. UNICEF and the ICRC continued mine risk education and survivor assistance programs in the North Caucuses. In 2001, there were at least 154 civilian casualties caused by landmines, improvised explosive devices and unexploded ordnance.
KOSOVO: In December 2001, the United Nations Mine Action Coordination Center stated that the clearance of all known minefields and cluster munition strike sites had been completed. It handed over responsibility for mine action to UNMIK and local bodies. Small-scale mine and UXO clearance will be needed for years to come. An estimated $85 million has been spent on mine action in the province since June 1999. This resulted in the clearance of more than 32 million square meters of land and the destruction of more than 50,000 mines, cluster bomblets and other unexploded ordnance. In 2001, over 8 million square meters were cleared. Caches of weaponry including antipersonnel mines continue to be discovered. Civilian deaths and injuries declined during 2001 with a total of 22 casualties, including nine fatalities.
NORTHERN IRAQ (IRAQI KURDISTAN): From 1998 to mid-2002, over 9.7 million square meters of land were cleared under the UN Mine Action Program. In 2001, the non-governmental Mines Advisory Group and Norwegian People’s Aid cleared more than 1 million square meters of land. MAP completed a Landmine Impact Survey in April 2002. Between December 2000 and June 2002, MAP provided mine risk education to over 143,175 beneficiaries. Iraqi government delays and refusals to grant visas for essential mine action personnel have hindered the program.
PALESTINE: Twenty landmine and UXO casualties were recorded in 2001, and another 45 casualties were recorded in just the first four and one-half months of 2002. More than 90 mine risk education activities were conducted during the reporting period.
SOMALILAND: A comprehensive Landmine Impact Survey began in Somaliland in May 2002 and due for completion in February 2003. Three non-governmental organizations are conducting mine clearance. In 2001, 33 people were killed and 70 injured in 98 reported landmine/UXO incidents.
WESTERN SAHARA: Polisario states that it has not used antipersonnel mines since the 1991 cease-fire, and has no stockpile of mines. Polisario accuses Morocco of continuing to use mines. There have been no humanitarian mine action programs since May 2000.